Geology 1.txt

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kjel
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Geology 1.txt
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2011-05-21 18:49:33
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geology 1 MT1
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  1. scientific method
    • observation
    • hypothesis
    • test; retest or revise
    • peer review
  2. Accretion
    Assembling a large object by combining smaller fragments together.
  3. How was moon formed
    When earth was 70% of its current size it was hit by a mars size impactor.
  4. Differentiation
    Separation of materials based on density. Heavier materials settle out to bottom, lighter ones rise to top.
  5. Layers that make up the earth's composition (chemical)
    Crust, mantle, core
  6. Layers that make up the earth's rheology?
    Lithoshere, asthenosphere, mesosphere, inner core, outer core
  7. Rheology
    Material behaviors of the earth's structure, i.e., rigid or ductile
  8. Ductile
    Deformable
  9. Isostasy
    The rigid lithosphere floats on the ductile asthenosphere
  10. 2 types of lithosphere
    Oceanic: thin and more dense & continental: thick and less dense
  11. Hypothesis
    Testable explanation for what you have observed
  12. Density =
    mass/volume. Or, how much/how big.
  13. Gravity
    Attractive force between masses
  14. Radiation
    Heat transfer due to light.
  15. Convection
    Heat transfer due to movement of material.
  16. Conduction
    Heat transfer due to contact.
  17. Age of Earth
    4.5 billion years old
  18. Archemede's principle
    An object will float if an equal amount of mass of the supporting fluid is displaced.
  19. Isotope
    Atoms of the same element that have different atomic masses. -- same # of protons but different # of neutrons
  20. Atomic number
    Number of protons in the nucleus. -- defines what element an atom is.
  21. Atomic mass
    Number of protons + number of neutrons
  22. Atoms
    The smallest unit of matter that has the properties of elements.
  23. Ions
    Atom with a charge imbalance. -- unequal # of protons and electrons.
  24. Cation
    Positively charged ion. -- more protons than electrons.
  25. Anion
    Negatively charged ion. -- more electrons than protons.
  26. Valence shell
    Outermost shell of electrons
  27. Covalent bond
    An atomic bond between atoms in which valence shell electrons are shared. -- strongest atomic bond. -- water
  28. Ionic bond
    An atomic bond formed by electrostatic attraction between ions of opposite charge when electrons are transferred. -- like NaCl, sodium chloride. -- two ions with opposite charge that hang out near eachother to appear charge balanced.
  29. Metallic bond
    An atomic bond where electrons are freely shared among nuclei.
  30. Hydrogen bond
    An atomic bond between the polar water molecule and other atoms/molecules.
  31. Polar molecule
    A molecule that has an equal number of protons and electrons but an uneven distribution of electrons across the molecule.
  32. Van Der Waals
    Weak static bonds.
  33. types of plate tectonic boundries
    • 1. convergent ==> <==
    • [ocean-continent, ocean-ocean, continent-continent]
    • 2. divergent <==>
    • [mid-ocean ridge, continental rift]
    • 3. transform ^ v [L.A. vs S.F.]
    • plates rubbing against each other
  34. 3 types of subatomic particles
    • protons (+)
    • neutrons (+, -)
    • electrons ( - )
  35. atomic number
    number of protons in the nucleus; define what element an atom is
  36. 5 special properties of H2O
    • adhesion; attraction to other substances
    • cohesion; attraction to other H2O molecules
    • heat capacity; amount of energy that must be added/removed to change temperature
    • expands when frozen
    • universal solvent; really good dissolver
  37. 5 criteria for a mineral
    • naturally occurring
    • solid
    • crystalline
    • inorganic
    • specific chemical composition
  38. crystalline
    atoms are arranged in a set repeating order
  39. explain two ways to bond a tetrahedron into minerals
    • glue using intermediate atoms (Fe, Mg)
    • polymerize by sharing a neighboring tetrahedron's oxygen
  40. silicate minerals (highest to lowest in density)
    • olivine (100% glue)
    • pyroxene
    • amphibole
    • mica
    • feldspar
    • quartz (100% polymerized)
  41. silicate minerals tetrahedral arrangement (high to low density)
    • isolated
    • single-chain
    • double-chain
    • sheet
    • 3D network
  42. 3 basic types of rocks
    • igneous
    • sedimentary
    • metamorphic
  43. igneous rock
    rocks that are cooled/crystallized from a melt
  44. sedimentary rock
    assembled fragments of other rocks, or, precipitate dissolved minerals; break or dissolve
  45. metamorphic rock
    alteration occurs in a solid state; cook, squish, or soak
  46. how to melt rocks
    • raise temperature; breaks bonds
    • lower pressure; increases space between atoms
    • add H2O; molecular home-wrecker, lowers melting point
  47. volcanic textures
    • glassy; lava cooled too rapidly for crystals to form
    • vesicular; magma cooled too rapidly for gases to escape
    • pyroclastic; "fire" "fragment"; rock assembled from erupted material
  48. viscosity
    • measurement of a substance's resistance to flow
    • high = thick, low = runny
  49. volatiles of volcanology
    • substances that are gases at magmatic temperatures
    • H2O
    • CO2
    • form bubbles -- increase volume, lower viscosity
  50. intrusive igneous environment
    • cool slowly, deep underground
    • cool using conduction
    • plutonic
  51. extrusive igneous environment
    • cooled rapidly on the surface
    • cools using radiation
    • volcanic
  52. aphanitic
    • extrusive igneous texture
    • very fine grained
    • very small mineral crystals, need microscope to see
  53. phaneritic
    • intrusive igneous texture
    • course grained
    • minerals crystals seen with naked eye
  54. pegmatitic
    • intrusive igneous texture
    • extremely course grained
    • crystals > 1cm
  55. porphyritic
    • intrusive igneous texture
    • large perfect mineral crystals surrounded by finer grained ground mass
    • 2 stages of cooling
    • chemical limits on crystal size (based on varied quantities of ingredients
  56. six types of volcanoes
    • continental caldera
    • cinder cone
    • flood basalt
    • volcanic dome
    • shield volcanos
    • stratovolcano (or composite)
  57. volcanic hazards
    • ash fall
    • ash flow
    • mud flows (lahar)
    • volcanic landslides
    • tsunami
    • lava flows
    • gases
  58. ash fall
    • low particle : gas
    • lower density, gas rich mixture
  59. ash flow
    • high particle : gas
    • higher density
  60. lahar
    a sticky mixture of water and debris that is created when eruption products enter river channels or glaciers melt
  61. volcanic gases
    • CO2 + H2O ==> H2CO3 (carbonic acid)
    • Lake Nyos, Cameroon
  62. four signs of impending eruption
    • seismicity; harmonic tremors -- small M1-M2 EQ that occur when magma intrude rocks
    • gas emissions; seeping through soil from magma
    • surface temperature; water temperature of springs and lakes
    • surface deformation
  63. weathering
    breakdown of rocks by physical or chemical means
  64. erosian
    transport of materials
  65. mechanical weathering
    • the breakdown of rocks purely by physical means
    • SA:V
    • the more mechanically weathered a rock becomes, the more likely it is to weather further
  66. six types of mechanical weathering
    • frost wedging; water expands when frozen, exerts pressure on rocks
    • crystal growth; water evaporates, leaves behind ions that form into crystals, exerting pressure on rocks
    • mechanical exfoliation; rocks that form under pressure "peel apart" once the pressure is released
    • tree roots and plants
    • thermal expansion and contraction
    • abrasion; rocks and sediment collide with eachother during transport
  67. chemical weathering
    • changes chemical composition of rocks and minerals
    • converts unstable rocks and minerals on the earth's surface to stable ones
  68. the role of H2O in chemical weathering
    • carries ions to reactions
    • participates in reactions
    • carries reaction products away
  69. three types of chemical weathering
    • dissolution
    • oxidation
    • hydrolysis
  70. chemical weathering by dissolution
    • ions (or ion groups) are carried away by water
    • example -- halite, NaCl -ionic bond
    • example -- limestone is CaCO3; H2O + CO2 ==> H2CO3 (carbonic acid) H2CO3 dissolves limestone
  71. chemical weathering by oxidation
    • a mineral's ion combines with oxygen
    • example -- Fe in mafic rocks
    • example -- Fe2+ in minerals will oxidize to Fe2O3 (hematite) (rust)
  72. chemical weathering by hydrolysis
    • H+ or OH- ions from water displace other ions in a mineral structure
    • example -- hydrogen bonding will break feldspars down into clay minerals
    • the type of reaction that is used to break down certain polymers
  73. 3 types of sedimentary rocks
    • detrital - broken fragments of other rocks
    • chemical - previously dissolved minerals (crystalline)
    • bioclastic - chunks of previously living organisms (bones, shells, teeth, etc.)
  74. agents of erosion
    • water
    • wind
    • ice
  75. carrying capacity
    • the volume of sediments that can be transported (how much)
    • based on velocity; increase in V = increase in carrying capacity, decrease in V = deposition
  76. competence
    • the largest size sediment that can be transported (how big)
    • based on velocity; increase in V = increase in competence, decrease in V = deposition
  77. sedimentary sorting
    • the separation of sediments based on size, shape and/or density
    • poorly sorted, sorted, well sorted
  78. lithification
    • the process by which sediment becomes rock
    • compaction or cementation
  79. lithification by compaction
    • pressure due to burial; overburden
    • overlying pressure (weight) of sediments decreases volume, binding grains
  80. lithostatic stress
    • the pressure or stress imposed on a layer of soil or rock by the weight of overlying material
    • pressure same in all directions
    • squeezing out the empty spaces
  81. lithification by cementation
    • pore spaces (voids) will be filled in with cement minerals
    • dissolved minerals precipitate out of solution and bind sediment grains
    • calcium carbonate, silica, iron oxides
  82. detrital classification
    • based on grain size:
    • boulder......
    • gravel........
    • pebble........ if angular = breccia; if rounded =conglomerate
    • sand, sandstone
    • mud, mudstone.......
    • silt, siltstone..........
    • clay, claystone........ if blocky or layered = shale
  83. chemical classification
    • based on composition and origin
    • inorganic and biotic
  84. classification of sedimentary structures
    • bedding
    • ripple marks
    • mud cracks
  85. four types of igneous textures
    • aphanitic
    • phaneritic
    • pegmatitic
    • porphyritic
  86. bedding planes
    • flat parallel layers of sediment
    • caused by...
    • changes in carrying capacity of the erosional agent
    • changes in sediment composition
  87. graded bedding
    the sediment size decreases from the bottom of the bed to the top
  88. cross-beds
    • form due to dune processes
    • the preserved slip faces found inside a dune
  89. asymmetric ripples
    ripples from a current moving in one direction
  90. symmetric ripples
    oscillation; current goes back and forth
  91. mudcracks
    records wet/dry cycles
  92. metamorphism
    • rocks are recrystallized in the solid state
    • original features of the rock are altered or obliderated
  93. protolith
    parent rock; original rock before metamorphism
  94. regional metamorphism
    • large scale metamorphism due to tectonic processes
    • burial
    • subduction
    • mountain building
    • == more even distribution of changes
  95. contact metamorphism
    • small scale changes due to direct contact with agents of metamorphism
    • igneous intrusions
    • lava flows
    • hydrothermal fluids
  96. agents of metamorphism
    • heat (temp)
    • pressure (stress)
    • fluids (H2O)
  97. Giga (G)
    109
  98. Mega (M)
    106
  99. kilo (k)
    103
  100. centi (c)
    10-2
  101. milli (m)
    10-3
  102. micro (µ)
    10-6
  103. nano (n)
    10-9

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