Respiratory Diseases

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Respiratory Diseases
2011-03-07 13:17:58
Respiratory Diseases

Biology 260 Microbiology
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  1. Name the pathogen that causes Streptococcus Pharyngitis.
    S. pyogenes
  2. Strep throat is caused by GAS, what are the factors that make it so virulent?
    • resistance to phagocytosis
    • streptokinases
    • streptolysins
  3. What is the test that is used to detect S. pyogenes in the throat?
    EIA; Enzyme immunoassay
  4. What is the Rx for Pharyngitis?
  5. What are the symptoms of Strep throat/ Streptococcal Pharyngitis?
    • Local inflammation
    • Fever
    • Frequently; swollen lymph nodes, tonsillitis, otitis media
  6. How is pharyngitis transmitted?
    • Respiratory secretions
    • Contaminated dairy
  7. Scarlet Fever is caused by what pathogen?
    Streptococcus pyogenes that has been invaded by a bacteriophage.
  8. What is the toxin that produces the rash during a Scarlet Fever infection?
    eurythrogenic toxin
  9. Scarlet fever is associated with what disease?
  10. What is the Rx for Scarlet Fever?
  11. What are the symptoms of Scarlet Fever?
    • high fever
    • pinkish red skin rash
    • spotted strawberry appearance of the tongue until it loses its upper membrane, then it becomes very red and enlarged
  12. What are the symptoms of Diphtheria?
    • Sore throat and fever
    • followed by general malaise and swelling of the neck.
    • Tough greyish membrane in thoat
  13. a membrane containing fibrin dead tissue, and bacterial cells is caused by what upper respiratory disease?
  14. What is the pathogen invoved in Diphtheria
    Corynebacterium diphtheriae
  15. How is diphtheria is trasmitted?
    Airbore due to its resistance to drying
  16. A diphtheria membrane is dangerous because?
    It can block the air passages
  17. Diphtheria is more virulent when?
    It has been lysogenized by a phage
  18. What are the results of untreated/ineffective Rx from a lysogenized Corynebacterium diphtheriae bacterial infection?
    the toxin circulates in the bloodstream, interferes with protein synthesis. The heart and kidneys are effected. Nerves can also be involved producing partial paryalysis
  19. Vaccination for diphtheria is:
    DTaP vaccine
  20. What does the "D" in DTaP vaccine stand for?
    Diphtheria toxoid
  21. Describe/catagorize Corynebacterium diphtheriae.
    • A gram-postive, non-endospor-forming rod
    • pleomorphic, club shaped
    • staining unevenly
  22. When an adult is penetrated deeply by a
    dirty nail. What type of toxoid will be administered along with
    tetanus toxoid?
    Diphtheria toxoid (Td vaccine)
  23. Slow healing ulcerations of the skin,
    with a gray membrane are found on a transient male. What disease
    might this be?
    Cutaneous diphtheria
  24. What is the Rx for diphtheria?
    antibiotics in conjunction with antitoxins.
  25. What is Otitus Media?
    ear ache
  26. Otitus media is a complication of what?
    The common cold, or any infection of the nose, throat
  27. What are the common pathogens that
    cause Otitus Media and what are their respective %'s
    • Streptococcus pneumoniae 35%
    • Hemolytic influenzae 20-30%
    • Moraxella catarrhalis 10-15%
    • Streptococcus pyogenes 8-10%
    • Staphlococcus aureus 1-2%
  28. Name the most common causative agents of the common cold and their %'s
    • rhinovirus 50%
    • coronaviruse 15-20%
  29. What are the symptoms to a uncomplicated coronavirus infection of the upper respiratory system?
    sneezing, excessive nasal secretion, congestion
  30. What is the causative agent of Whooping Cough?
    Bordetella pertussis
  31. Describe and catagorize the bacterium Bortdetella pertussis.
    • Small
    • obligately aerobic
    • gram-negative coccobacillus
    • virulent strains possess a capsule
  32. Name the specific location in which Bordetella pertussis inhabits within an infected individual.
    B. pertussis attches to the ciliated cells in the trachea
  33. What is the name of the chemical that Bordetella pertussis produces which prevents the ciliary escalator from working?
    Tracheal cytotoxin
  34. What is the name of the chemical which Bordetella pertussis produces that enters the bloodstream and is responsible for the systemic symptoms of the disease?
    pertussis toxin
  35. What is the name of the 1st stage of pertussis and what are the symptoms associated with this stage?
    The catarrhal stage, resembles a common cold.
  36. What is the name of the 2nd stage of pertussis and what are the symptoms?
    The paroxysmal stage is characterized by prolonged sieges of coughing to eject unremoved mucus. Gasping between coughs causes the "whooping" sound. Coughing episodes occur for 1 to 6 weeks.
  37. What is the 3rd stage of pertussis and what are the symptoms?
    The convolescence stage may last for months. in infants irreversable damage may occur to the brain.
  38. What is the name of the vaccination for Pertussis?
    DTaP: Diphtheria Tetanus acellular Pertussis
  39. What is the Rx for pertussis?
    During the catarrhal stage antibiotics: erythromycin or macrolides. Afterward the antibiotics are unhelpful but may reduce tranmission.
  40. What is the causitive agent of Tuberculosis?
    Mycobacterium tuberculosis
  41. Describe the morphology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    • M. tuberculosis is a:
    • slender rod
    • sometimes forms elements
    • tends to grow in clumps
    • appears mold like when growing on water
  42. Catagorize M. tuberculosis
    • rod shaped
    • acid-fast
    • obligate aerobe
  43. list the cell wall characterisics of M. tuberculosis:
    • carbol-fusion dye cannot be decolorized with acid-alcohol (acid-fast)
    • large amounts of lipids
    • highly resistant to desiccation
    • very resistant to chemical antimicrobials
    • contains mycolic acids
  44. M. tuberculosis is transmitted how?
    typically airborne
  45. What factors my affect host resistance levels to M. tuberculosis?
    • presence of another illness
    • malnutrition
    • overcrowding
    • stress
    • infecting dosage size
  46. Why is mycolic acids an important factor in M. tuberculosis pathenogenicity?
    Mycolic acids are part of the cell wall and strongly stimulates the inflammatory response in an infected individual
  47. What symptoms are present after an initial infection of Tubercle bacilli and are subsequently phagosized by macrophages?
  48. A tubercle begins when?
    phagosized tubercle bacilli are growing in the macrophage
  49. What is an early tubercle composed of?
    a clump tubercle bacilli multiplying in macrophages that are surrounded by a layer of defensive cells, more macrophages
  50. Symptoms of TB 1st begin to occur when?
    In a few weeks after tubercles have formed
  51. What causes 1st syptoms of TB?
    • uncalcified lesions in the alveoli
    • dying macrophages releasing tubercle bacilli at the caseous center of a tubercle
  52. What is the process called in which the caseous center of a tubercle enlarges and forms an air-filled cavity in which tubercle bacilli can grow
  53. What causes tubercle bacilli to be disseminated throughout the host via circualtory and lymphatic systems?
    prolonged liquifaction inside a tubercle causes the tubercle to rupture sending the growing bacilli throughout the host
  54. If Tb is arrested before any tubercles rupture what visible evidence can be found?
    calcified lesions
  55. What is currently the best way to detect Ghon's complexes?
    Computed Tomography CT scans
  56. What are the calcified lesions due to TB called?
    Ghon's complexes
  57. What are the two most powerful anti-tb drugs?
    Isoniazid and rifampin/rifampicin
  58. How long is the minimum recommented TB treatment time with antibiotics?
    6 months
  59. What are the symptoms of TB?
    • Coughing
    • sputum may become bloodstained
    • weight loss
    • general loss of vigor
    • blood vessels rupture causing fatal hemoraging
  60. Disseminated infection by tubercle bacilli is called what?
    miliary tuberculosis
  61. Numerous millet sized tubercles found in different body tissues is due to what?
    miliary tuberculoisis
  62. What is the only effective drug used against dormant tubercle bacilli?
  63. What is the difference between MDR-TB and XDR-TB?
    MDR-TB is resistant to only one frontline drugs and a few 2nd line drugs, where as XDR-TB is resistant to both frontline drug and many 2nd line drugs.
  64. The common Dx for TB infection, but does not indicate an active infection, just that there are tubercle bacilli within the macrophages is called?
    tuberculin skin test
  65. What is the name of the test that indicates a probable active TB infection in a very young person, but only indicate hypersensitivity resulting from a previous infection or vaccination in a older person?
    Mantoux test
  66. What is the most common pneumia?
    Pneumococcal Pneumonia
  67. What is the pathogen that causes Pneumococcal pneumonia?
    Streptococcal pneumoniae
  68. What are the symptoms of Pneumococcal pneumonia?
    Infected alveoli of lung fill with fluids; interferes with oxygen uptake

    • high fever
    • breathing difficulty
    • chest pain
    • reddish appearance of lungs
    • sputum is often rust colored
  69. What is the reservoir for the disease Pneumococcal pneumonia?
  70. What is the Dx for Pneumococcal pneumonia?
    Positive optochin inhibition test or bile solubility test; serological typing of bacteria
  71. What is the Rx for Pneumococcal pneumonia?
    • Penicillin, fluoroquinolones
    • Prevention: pneumococcal vaccine
  72. Catagorize and describe Pneumococcal pneumonia.
    • gram positive
    • ovoid bacterium
    • cell pairs are surrounded by a dense capsul
  73. What is the pathogen of the disease Haemophilus influenzae pneumonia?
    Haemophilus influenza
  74. What are the symptoms of Haemophilus influenzae pneumonia?
    Infected alveoli of lun gill with fluids; interferes with oxygen uptake

    • High fever
    • breathing difficulty
    • chest pain
    • reddish appearance of lungs
    • sputum is often rust colored
  75. What is the reservoir for Haemophilus influenzae pneumonia?
  76. Dx for Haemophilu influenzae pneumonia is?
    Gram stain will differentiate from streptococcal pneumonia

    Isolation; special media for nutritional requirements
  77. What is the Rx for Heamophilus influenzae pneumonia?
  78. What is the pathogen that causes Mycoplasmal pneumonia?
    Mycolplasma pneumoniae
  79. What are the symptoms of Mycoplasma pneumonia?
    mild but persistent respiratory symptoms; low fever, cough, headache
  80. What is the reservoir of Mycoplasma pneumonia?
  81. Dx of Mycoplasma pneumonia
    PCR and serological tests
  82. What is the Rx for Mycoplasma pneumonia?
  83. Which pneumonia accounts for 20% of pneumonia in young adults and children?
    Mycoplasma pneumonia
  84. Describe Mycoplasmal pneumonia
    • lacks cell wall
    • colonies so small that magnification is required to see them
    • colonies grown on media look like a fried egg
  85. What is the pathogen that causes legionellosis?
    Legionella pneumophila
  86. What are the symptoms of Legionellosis?
    • potential lethal pneumonia
    • high fever of 40.5 C.
    • cough
    • and general symptoms of pneumonia
  87. What is the reservoir for Legionellosis?
  88. Dx of Legionellosis is
    Culture on selective media, DNA probe
  89. What is the Rx for Legionellosis?
    Erythromycin/ Azithromyacin
  90. What is the less virulent form of legionellosis?
    Pontiac Fever
  91. What are the symptoms of Pontiac fever?
    • fever
    • muscular aches
    • cough
  92. True or false Legionella pneumophila are not capable of growing in phagocytes?
  93. What makes legionellosis difficult to kill when it is in its niche?
    • It is gram negative so its cell wall help protect it from chlorine in low levels
    • also it grows in biofilms
  94. Which pneumonia is know as "walking pneumonia"?
    Mycoplasma pneumonia
  95. What is the pathogen that causes Psittacosis?
    • Chlamydophila psittaci
  96. Psittacosis is also known as?
  97. Symptoms of Psittacosis are?
    • If any
    • fever
    • headache
    • chills
  98. The reservoir for Psittacosis is?
    • birds
    • parakeets
    • pigeons
  99. Psittacosis is transmitted by
    inhalation of bird droppings and other bird exudates
  100. Chlamydophila are gram_______ and an obligate______ bacteria.
    negative, intracellular
  101. What part of in the life cycle of Chlamydophila psittacosis is it most likely to be transmitted in the air?
    When it has formed into an elemental body
  102. Why are elemental bodies infectious?
    they are resistant to environmental stresses.
  103. What is the Rx for an infection by Chlamydophila psittacosis?
  104. What is the Rx for an infection by Chlamydophila pneumonia?
  105. What is the causitive agent of the disease Chlamydial pneumonia?
    Chlamydophila pneumoniae
  106. How does Psittacosis usually get Dx?
    growth of bacteria in eggs or cell culture
  107. What is th ereservoir of Chlamydial pneumonia
  108. What are the symtoms of Chlamydial pneumonia?
    serological tests
  109. What are the symptoms of Chlamydial pneumonia?
    • mild respiratory illness
    • resembles walking pneumonia/Mycoplasma pneumonia
  110. There is strong evidence between ________ pneumonia and atherosclerosis -the deposisiton of fatty deposits that block arteries
    Chlamydial Pneumonia
  111. What is the pathogen that causes Q fever?
    Coxiella burnetii
  112. The pathogen Coxiella burnetii is a obligately ________, ________ bacterium.
  113. Coxiella burnetii is transmitted by
    • unpasturized milk
    • airborne
  114. Coxiella is heat resistant because it is
    endospore forming
  115. Rx: for chronic Q fever infection:
    a combination of chloroquine and doxycycline
  116. The symptoms for Q fever are
    • mild respiratory disease lasting 1-2 weeks;
    • occasional complications such as endocarditis