Protein

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Author:
Anonymous
ID:
70829
Filename:
Protein
Updated:
2011-03-05 16:29:03
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protein
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Description:
protein
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  1. Protein Synthesis
    • DNA contains
    • coded instructions
    • Copies of codes
    • o Transferred to the cytoplasm (via mRNA)
    • Amino acids added one at a time
    • o With aid of transfer RNA (tRNA)
    • Requires energy
  2. Essential amino acid
    • o Cannot be synthesized by the body in sufficient amounts
    • o Also called “indispensable”
    • o Required in the diet
  3. Protein Synthesis
    Will stop without Essential Amino Acids
  4. Digestion of Protein in the Stomach
    • · Denatured

    • o

    • Heat/acid/alkaline/enzymes results
    • in alteration of the protein’s three-dimensional structure
    • · Gastrin

    • o

    • Stimulates the release of acid and
    • pepsin
    • · Pepsin

    • o Breaks down proteins

  5. Over intake of Protein
    Body doesnt have room to store it, so it is form into fat or carbs (glycogen)
  6. Complete protein
  7. Nitrogen balance
    Proteins have nitrogen, Which is important in growth.
  8. The concept of complementary proteins
    To incomplete (complementary) proteins can be combined to make a complete protein.
  9. protein digestion
    Digestion of Protein in the Stomach

    Digestion of Protein in the Small Intestine
  10. Digestion of Protein in the Small Intestine
    • · Release of CCK

    • · Pancreatic enzymes:

    • o Trypsin, among others, into the duodenum

    • · Peptones à

    • peptides à
    • amino acids
    • · Small peptides and amino acids

    • o Ready for absorption

  11. Protein absorption
    • ·

    • Final site of digestion is
    • microvilli surface and within absorptive cells
    • o Breaks down di- and tri-peptides into single amino acids

    • ·

    • Many different amino acid transport
    • mechanisms
    • ·

    • Active absorption
    • ·

    • Amino acids are sent to the liver
    • o Via portal (vein) circulation

  12. What are the sources of amino
    acids entering the pool
  13. What are the destinations of
    amino acids leaving the pool
  14. What is the by-product of
    amino acid catabolism and how is it processed
  15. How do circulating proteins
    (primarily albumin) contribute to fluid balance
  16. RDA for Protein
    • Promotes equilibrium
    • AMDR for protein is 10-35 percent
    • of energy for adults
    • 0.8 gm/kg of healthy body weight
  17. High-Protein Diet
    • ·

    • Low in plant foods (fiber),
    • vitamins, phytochemicals
    • ·

    • High in saturated fat and cholesterol
    • ·

    • Excessive intake of processed red
    • meat is linked with colon cancer
    • ·

    • Burden on the kidney
    • ·

    • May increase calcium loss in the
    • urine
  18. Excessive intake of processed red
    • meat is linked with colon cancer
    • Burden on the kidney
    • May increase calcium loss in the
    • urine
  19. How does the RDA
    change in pregnancy, endurance exercise training, resistance exercise training
    • Increased by ~10-15 gm /day for pregnancy
    • Endurance athletes
    • o May need 1.2-1.7 gm/kg healthy weight

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