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Digestion begins in mouth w/chemical breakdown of food. Peristalisis moves food to the stomach through the esophagus. Stomach stores food & mixes it w/digestive juices and empties contents into small intestines.
Any surgery that involves direct manipulation of the bowel temporarily stops peristalisis. This condition is called _______ and usually lasts about 24 to 48 hours
The large intestine is divided into the _____, ______ and _______
To hear bowel sounds, you should start where?
An ______ bypasses the entire large intestines and as a result, stools are frequent and liquid
Colostomy of the ascending colon, stools are:
frequent and liquid
A colostomy of teh transverse colon generally results in ____________
more solid formed stool
The sigmoid colostomy resleases ________stool
In this procedure the provider removes the colon, creates a pouch from the end of the small intestine and attaches the pouch to the client's anus
- ileoanal pouch anastomosis
- The pt is continent of stool because stool is evacuated via the anus
Small intestine creates a pouch; pt empties the pouch several times a day
Kock continent ileostomy
Normal bowel sounds occur every __to__ seconds and last a second to several seconds
Absent of hypoactive bowel sounds of ______/min occur with _________
- <5 per minute
- paralytic ileus (such as after abdominal surgery)
High-pitched and hyperactive bowel sounds of ______or more per minute occur:
- 35 or more sounds per minute
- occur w/small intestine obstruction and inflammatory disorders
It is important to visually assess the abdomen BEFORE you palpate.
Look then Listen then palpate!!!!
Those at highest risk for colon cancer inclue:
- Over 50
- African Americans
- Smokers/alchol intake
______ &_______ are the first step in treating constipation in older adults
fiber & bulk-forming laxatives
In the Nclex hospital, if bowel sounds are not heard, you should listen to each quadrant for ______ to establish "no bowel sounds"
When administering an enema, the bag should be raised __________ above the anus
This part of the small intestines absorbs carbs and proteins
This part of the small intestines absorbs water, fats and bile salts
Pressure excerted through a voluntary contraction of the abdominal muscles while maintaining forced expiration against a closed airway
- valsalve maneuver-used to expel feces
- Clients w/cardiovascular disease, glacoma, increased cranial pressure or new surgical wound are at greater risk, such as cardiac irregularities & elevated BP and need to avoid straining to pass stool
In older adults _______causes decreased mesenteric blood flow, thus decreasing absorption from the small intestine
Age related changes in the GI tract:
- Mouth-decreased chewing & salivation
- Esophagus-Reduced motility
- Stomach-decreased acid secretions
- Small Intestines-decresed nurtrient absorption
- Large intestines-decreased peristalisis & nerve sensations
- Liver-size decreases
During emotional stress the digestive process is __________ and peristalsis is _________
If a person becomes depressed, the autonomic nervous system ______impulses and peristalsis ______
A _______ colostomy is usually performed in a medical emergency when health care providers anticipate closure of the colostomy. Usually lg stomas constructed in the transverse colon. The surgeon pulls a loop of bowel onto the abdomen & supports it w/a device
For many clients, ________are a result of sugical treatment of colorectral cancer. Rectum is removed and one stoma is formed from the proximal end of the bowl w/the distal portion of the GI tract eithe removed or sewn closed (Hartmann's pouch)
The _______colostomy consists of two distinct stomas
double barrel colostomy
This is a useful diagnostic screening tool for colon cancer:
fecal occult blood testing (measures microscopic amounts of blood in feces)
A nasogastric tube insertion requires what aseptic technique?
The stool discharged from an ostomy is called
To minimize skin irritation, avoid unnecessary changing of entire ostomy pouching system. You should make sure pouches are emptied when ______to____full
1/3 to 1/2 full
What are the purposes of gastric decompression?
- to keep the gastrointestinal tract free of secretions
- reduce nausea and gas
- decrease the risk of vomiting & aspiration