Top 600 Midterm

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Top 600 Midterm
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  1. Amaryl
    • -Generic: glimepiride
    • -Class: Sulfonylurea
    • -Indication: Oral Type 2 Diabetes
    • -MOA: increase endogenous insulin secretion; reduces rate of hepatic glucose production
    • -Adverse Effects: hypoglycemia, weight gain
    • -Patient Education:
    • -Other:
  2. Micronase, Glynase, DiaBeta
    • -Generic: glyburide
    • -Class: Sulfonylureas
    • -Indication: Oral Type 2 Diabetes
    • -MOA: increase endogenous insulin secretion; reduce rate of hepatic glucose production
    • -Adverse Effects: hypoglycemia, weight gain
    • -Patient Education:
    • -Other:
  3. Glucotrol (XL)
    • -Generic: glipizide
    • -Class: Sulfonylureas
    • -Indication: Oral Type 2 Diabetes
    • -MOA: increase endogenous insulin secretion; reduce rate of hepatic glucose production
    • -Adverse Effects: hypoglycemia, weight gain
    • -Patient Education:
    • -Other:
  4. Actos
    • -Generic: pioglitazone
    • -Class: Thiazolidinediones
    • -Indication: Oral Type 2 Diabetes
    • -MOA: decrease insulin resistance by making muscle and adipose cells more sensitive to insulin; suppress hepatic glucose production
    • -Adverse Effects: weight gain, edema, hypoglycemia
    • -Patient Education: takes 6 weeks for max effect
    • -Other: improves HDL and plasma triglycerides; usually LDL neutral; contraindicated in pts. with abnormal liver function
  5. Avandia
    • -Generic: rosiglitazone
    • -Class: Thiazolidinediones
    • -Indication: Oral Type 2 Diabetes
    • -MOA: decrease insulin resistance by making muscle and adipose cells more sensitive to insulin; suppress hepatic glucose production
    • -Adverse Effects: weight gain, edema, hypoglycemia
    • -Patient Education: takes 6 weeks for max effect
    • -Other: improves HDL and plasma triglycerides; usually LDL neutral; contraindicated in pts. with abnormal liver function***Withdrawn from market bc of cardiovascular risks***
  6. Glucophage (XR)
    • -Generic: metformin
    • -Class: Biguanides
    • -Indication: Oral Type 2 Diabetes
    • -MOA: decreases hepatic glucose production
    • -Adverse Effects:diarrhea, abdominal discomfort, lactic acidosis
    • -Patient Education:
    • -Other:
  7. @Prandin
    • -Generic: repaglinide
    • -Class: Meglitinides
    • -Indication: Oral Type 2 Diabetes
    • -MOA: stimulate insulin secretion in presence of glucose
    • -Adverse Effects: hypoglycemia (may be <sulfonylureas)
    • -Patient Education:
    • -Other:
  8. @Precose
    • @Glyset
    • -Generic: acarbose; miglitol
    • -Class: Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors
    • -Indication: Oral Type 2 Diabetes
    • -MOA: blocks enzymes that digests glucose in the small intestine (delays glucose uptake)
    • -Adverse Effects: flatulence, abdominal discomfort
    • -Patient Education:
    • -Other:
  9. Januvia
    • -Generic: sitagliptin
    • -Class: DPP4 Inhibitor
    • -Indication: Oral Type 2 Diabetes
    • -MOA: stimulates beta cells to release insulin; decreases hepatic glucose production
    • -Adverse Effects: GI
    • -Patient Education:
    • -Other: decreases FBG 10-15 mg/dl; decreases A1C 0.5-0.6%; decrease post-prandial glucose 50mg/dl
  10. Byetta
    • -Generic: exenatide
    • -Class: Incretin mimetic
    • -Indication: Oral Type 2 Diabetes
    • -MOA: stimulates pancreas to make more insulin; increases beta cell growth/replication
    • -Adverse Effects:
    • -Patient Education:
    • -Other: SQ
  11. Glucovance
    • -Generic: glyburide with metformin
    • -Class: sulfonylurea and biguanide
    • -Indication: Oral Type 2 Diabetes
    • -MOA:
    • -Adverse Effects:
    • -Patient Education:
    • -Other:
  12. NovaLog
    • -Generic: insulin aspart
    • -Class: Insulins
    • -Indication: Diabetes
    • -MOA: rapid-acting: works within 10-30 minutes; duration 3-5 hours
    • -Adverse Effects:
    • -Patient Education:
    • -Other:
  13. Humulin R, Novolin R
    • -Generic: insulin regular
    • -Class: Insulins
    • -Indication: Diabetes
    • -MOA: short-acting: 30-60 minutes to work; duration up to 8 hours
    • -Adverse Effects:
    • -Patient Education:-Other:
  14. Lantus
    • -Generic: insulin glargine
    • -Class: Insulins
    • -Indication: Diabetes
    • -MOA: Long-acting: 1-5 hours to start working; duration up to 24 hours
    • -Adverse Effects:
    • -Patient Education:
    • -Other:
  15. Humalog
    • -Generic: insulin lispro
    • -Class: Insulins
    • -Indication: Diabetes
    • -MOA: rapid-acting: works within 10-30 minutes; duration from 3-5 hours
    • -Adverse Effects:
    • -Patient Education:
    • -Other:
  16. Motrin, Advil
    • -Generic: ibuprofen
    • -Class: NSAID
    • -Indication: inflammatory disease, rheumatoid disorders, mild to mod. pain, fever
    • -MOA:
    • -Adverse Effects: indigestion, abdominal pain, constipation
    • -Patient Education: take with food or milk, avoid aspirin
    • -Other: Adult Max Dose=3.2g/day; 6 mths of age and older
    • Peds Dosing: <102.5=5mg/kg/dose
    • >102.5=10mg/kg/dose
    • Max Dose= 40 mg/kg/DAY
  17. Naprosyn
    • -Generic: naproxen
    • -Class: NSAID
    • -Indication: inflammatory disease, rheumatoid, mild to mod. pain, fever
    • -MOA:
    • -Adverse Effects: indigestion, abdominal pain, constipation
    • -Patient Education:take with food or milk, avoid aspirin
    • -Other: Adult max dose= 1200-1650 mg/day
  18. Aspirin
    • -Class: analgesic, NSAID
    • -Indication: mild to mod. pain, inflammation, fever, prevention of MI, inhibit prostaglandin synth
    • -MOA:
    • -Adverse Effects:bleeding, fatigue, rash, abdominal pain
    • -Patient Education: toxic doses=salicyclism (vomiting, vertigo, tinnitus); caution OTC’s
    • -Other: contraindicated: hypersensitivities, bleeding disorders (Coumadin) >16 yoa, gout, 3rd trimester, Reye’s syndrome; low v. regular doses (81 or 325 mg)
  19. Mobic
    • -Generic: meloxicam
    • -Class: NSAID
    • -Indication: OA, RA, juv. RA
    • -MOA:
    • -Adverse Effects:edema, HA, dizziness
    • -Patient Education: take with food, milk; avoid aspirin
    • -Other:
  20. Voltaren
    • -Generic: diclofenac sodium
    • -Class: NSAID
    • -Indication: OA, RA
    • -MOA:
    • -Adverse Effects: nausea, indigestion, constipation
    • -Patient Education: take with food or milk, avoid aspirin
    • -Other:
  21. Cataflam
    • -Generic: diclofenac potassium
    • -Class: NSAID
    • -Indication: OA, RA, pain
    • -MOA:
    • -Adverse Effects: nausea, indigestion, constipation
    • -Patient Education: take with food, milk; avoid aspirin
    • -Other:
  22. Relafen
    • -Generic: nabumetone
    • -Class: NSAID
    • -Indication: OA, RA
    • -MOA:
    • -Adverse Effects: abdominal pain, constipation, nausea
    • -Patient Education: take with food, milk, avoid aspirin
    • -Other:
  23. Lodine
    • -Generic: etodolac
    • -Class: NSAID
    • -Indication: OA, RA
    • -MOA:
    • -Adverse Effects: abdominal pain, constipation, nausea
    • -Patient Education: take with food or milk, avoid aspirin
    • -Other:
  24. Celebrex
    • -Generic: celecoxib
    • -Class: Selective Cox II NSAID
    • -Indication: OA, RA
    • -MOA:
    • -Adverse Effects: GI irritation, HA may occur
    • -Patient Education: similar products taken off the market bc of heart attacks and strokes
    • -Other:
  25. Tylenol
    • -Generic: acetaminophen (APAP)
    • -Class: Non-opioid analgesic
    • -Indication: mild to mod. pain; fever
    • -MOA:
    • -Adverse Effects: rash, anemia
    • -Patient Education: alcohol use can increase the risk of toxicities
    • -Other: very weak inhibitor of COX (no sig. anti-inflammatory effects)
    • Max Adult Dose= 4g/day
  26. Benadryl
    • -Generic: diphenhydramine
    • -Class: 1st generation Antihistamine
    • -Indication: allergies
    • -MOA:
    • -Adverse Effects: dizziness, drowsiness, dry mouth
    • -Patient Education: enters breast milk, causes drowsiness, fatigue, diarrhea
    • -Other: 5 mg/kg/day (divided doses q6-8h)- mod to severe allergic rxn; 1st generation= crosses BBB, short half-life, CNS adverse effects
  27. Phenergan
    • -Generic: promethazine
    • -Class: antiemetic, antihistamine (1st gen), sedative;
    • -Indication: allergic rxns, sedation, motion sickness, post-op pain
    • -MOA: H1 antagonist, anticholinergic
    • -Adverse Effects: drowsiness, dizziness, dry mouth
    • -Patient Education: refrigerate suppositories, onset of action: 15-30 minutes, >2 years
    • -Other: formulations: tablet, syrup, suppository, injection= PO, IM, PR (IV not recommended extravasation)
  28. Tussionex
    • -Generic: chlorpheniramine and hydrocodone
    • -Class: antitussive
    • -Indication: cough relief
    • -MOA:
    • -Adverse Effects: drowsiness, constipation
    • -Patient Education: shake well; avoid alcohol, >6 yoa
    • -Other: habit forming
  29. Tessalon, Perles
    • -Generic: benzonatate
    • -Class: antitussive
    • -Indication: cough relief
    • -MOA:
    • -Adverse Effects: life-threatening rxns: tetracaine, procaine; HA, constipation, nausea
    • -Patient Education: don’t crush or chew, >10yoa
    • -Other:
  30. Prilosec
    • -Generic: omeprazole
    • -Class: PPI
    • -Indication: mod. to severe GERD
    • -MOA: blocks the secretion of acid into the stomach by the parietal cells
    • -Adverse Effects:
    • -Patient Education: OTC; can sprinkle on applesauce; take 1 hour before meals; avoid alcohol
    • -Other: protects esophagus so it can heal; may also strengthen LES
  31. Nexium
    • -Generic: esomeprazole
    • -Class: PPI
    • -Indication: mod. to severe GERD
    • -MOA: blocks the secretion of acid into the stomach by the parietal cells
    • -Adverse Effects:
    • -Patient Education: can sprinkle on applesauce; take 1 hour before meals; avoid alcohol
    • -Other: protects esophagus so it can heal; may also strengthen LES
  32. Prevacid
    • -Generic: lansoprazole
    • -Class: PPI
    • -Indication: mod. to severe GERD
    • -MOA: blocks the secretion of acid into the stomach by the parietal cells
    • -Adverse Effects:
    • -Patient Education: OTC; can sprinkle on applesauce; take 1 hour before meals; avoid alcohol
    • -Other: protects esophagus so it can heal; may also strengthen LES
  33. Protonix
    • -Generic: pantoprazole
    • -Class: PPI
    • -Indication: mod. to severe GERD
    • -MOA: blocks the secretion of acid into the stomach by the parietal cells
    • -Adverse Effects:
    • -Patient Education: Must swallow whole; take 1 hour before meals; avoid alcohol-Other: protects esophagus so it can heal; may also strengthen LES
  34. Aciphex
    • -Generic: rabeprazole
    • -Class: PPI
    • -Indication: mod. to severe GERD
    • -MOA: blocks the secretion of acid into the stomach by the parietal cells
    • -Adverse Effects:
    • -Patient Education: Must swallow whole; take 1 hour before meals; avoid alcohol
    • -Other: protects esophagus so it can heal; may also strengthen LES
  35. Zantac
    • -Generic: ranitidine
    • -Class: H2 antagonist
    • -Indication: treats mild to moderate GERD
    • -MOA: bind H2 receptors on parietal cells preventing histamine-induced activation
    • -Adverse Effects:
    • -Patient Education: best if taken 30 minutes before a meal-Other: does Not heal inflammation; used in children <1 year
  36. Pepcid
    • -Generic: famotidine
    • -Class: H2 antagonist
    • -Indication: treats mild to moderate GERD
    • -MOA: bind H2 receptors on parietal cells preventing histamine-induced activation
    • -Adverse Effects:
    • -Patient Education: best if taken 30 minutes before a meal
    • -Other: does Not heal inflammation; adjust in renal insufficiency
  37. Fosamax
    • -Generic: alendronate
    • -Class: bisphosphanate
    • -Indication: prevention and treatment of osteoporosis in men, women
    • -MOA: inhibit osteoclasts activity; reduces bone resorption and turnover
    • -Adverse Effects: heartburn , indigestion, jaw bone pain
    • -Patient Education:*Must follow proper administration technique
    • -take first thing in the morning
    • -take with a full glass of water
    • -nothing other than water within 30 minutes
    • -remain sitting or standing for at least 30 minutes
    • -Other: combo tab with Vitamin D available; avoid in renal insufficiency -drug holiday
  38. Actonel
    • -Generic: risedronate
    • -Class: bisphosphanate
    • -Indication: prevention and treatment of osteoporosis in men, women
    • -MOA: inhibit osteoclasts activity; reduces bone resorption and turnover
    • -Adverse Effects: heartburn , indigestion, jaw bone pain
    • -Patient Education:*Must follow proper administration technique
    • -take first thing in the morning
    • -take with a full glass of water
    • -nothing other than water within 30 minutes
    • -remain sitting or standing for at least 30 minutes
    • -Other: avoid in renal insufficiency
  39. Boniva
    • -Generic: ibandronate
    • -Class: bisphosphanate
    • -Indication: prevention and treatment of osteoporosis in men, women
    • -MOA: inhibit osteoclasts activity; reduces bone resorption and turnover
    • -Adverse Effects: heartburn , indigestion, jaw bone pain
    • -Patient Education:*Must follow proper administration technique
    • -take first thing in the morning
    • -take with a full glass of water
    • -nothing other than water within 60 minutes
    • -remain sitting or standing for at least 60 minutes
    • -Other: avoid in renal insufficiency; APAP given at time of treatment
  40. Evista
    • -Generic: raloxifene
    • -Class: SERM
    • -Indication: osteoporosis, breast cancer, hormone replacement therapy
    • -MOA: estrogen-like activity on the bones
    • -Adverse Effects: hot flashes, night sweats, leg cramps, blood clots
    • -Patient Education: avoid alcohol
    • -Other: reduces risk of ER+ breast cancer; Pregnancy category x
  41. Premarin
    • -Generic: conjugated estrogens
    • -Class: hormones
    • -Indication: moderate to severe vasomotor symptoms
    • -MOA:
    • -Adverse Effects: vaginal bleeding, venous thromboembolism, stroke
    • -Patient Education:
    • -Other: increases risk of endometrial cancer in women with a uterus
  42. Yaz, Ocella
    • -Generic: ethinyl estradiol/ drospirenone
    • -Class: Oral Contraceptive
    • -Indication:
    • -MOA: anti-mineralcorticoid activity
    • -Adverse Effects:
    • -Patient Education:
    • -Other: avoid use in renal/adrenal insufficiency
  43. TriNessa
    • -Generic: ethinyl estradiol norgestimate
    • -Class: Oral Contraceptive
    • -Indication:
    • -MOA:
    • -Adverse Effects:
    • -Patient Education:
    • -Other:
  44. Loestrin 24 Fe
    • -Generic: ethinyl estradiol/ norethindrone
    • -Class: Oral Contraceptive
    • -Indication:
    • -MOA:
    • -Adverse Effects:
    • -Patient Education:
    • -Other:
  45. NuvaRing
    • -Generic: ethinyl estradiol/etonogestrel
    • -Class: Contraceptive- IUD
    • -Indication:
    • -MOA:
    • -Adverse Effects:
    • -Patient Education: inserted every 3 weeks on day 1 of cycle; use back-up if removed >3 hours
    • -Other:
  46. Detrol LA
    • -Generic: tolterodine
    • -Class: antimuscarinic
    • -Indication: UTI
    • -MOA: competitive muscarinic receptor antagonist (dec. bladder contractions, detrusor pressure, incomplete voiding)
    • -Adverse Effects: dry mouth, headache, constipation, blurred vision, dizziness
    • -Patient Education: decreases urge and urination; may take weeks to months for full efficacy
    • -Other: once (ER) or twice (IR) daily: reduce dose in hepatic/renal insufficiency
  47. Flomax
    • -Generic: tamsulosin
    • -Class: alpha-1 adrenegic blocker
    • -Indication: BPH
    • -MOA:
    • -Adverse Effects:orthostatic hypotension, dizziness, weakness, dec. libido, insomnia, rhinitis, abnormal ejaculations, ejaculatory problems, intraoperative floppy iris syndrome
    • -Patient Education: 30 minutes after same meal everyday
    • -Other: can use alone or with 5 alpha reductase inhibitor
  48. Proscar
    • -Generic: finasteride
    • -Class: 5 alpha reductase inhibitor
    • -Indication: BPH
    • -MOA:
    • -Adverse Effects: erectile dysfunction, dec. libido, inc. breast size/tenderness, rash
    • -Patient Education: **Cat. X: pregnant women should not handle crushed or broken tablets; may also spread through semen
    • -Other: use alone or with 5 alpha reductase inhibitor (use with doxazosin)
  49. Viagra
    • -Generic: sildenafil
    • -Class: phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor
    • -Indication: ED
    • -MOA: inhibits cGMP (increased inflow of blood)
    • -Adverse Effects:headache, flushing, dyspepsia, rhinitis, impaired color discrimination, dizziness, hypotension, CV effects, sudden hearing loss
    • -Patient Education: take without food, 30-60 minutes before intercourse, use up to once daily; lasts up to 4 hours; avoid high fat foods, caution with alpha blockers and some antibiotics/antifungals
    • -Other: **contraindicated with nitrates; grapefruit juice may increase concentration
  50. Cialis
    • -Generic: tadalafil
    • -Class: phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor
    • -Indication: ED
    • -MOA: inhibits cGMP (increased inflow of blood)
    • -Adverse Effects:headache, flushing, dyspepsia, rhinitis, impaired color discrimination, dizziness, hypotension, CV effects, sudden hearing loss
    • -Patient Education: take with or without food, 30 minutes before intercourse, use up to once daily, lasts 24-36 hours, avoid high fat foods, caution with alpha blockers and some antibiotics/antifungals
    • -Other: **contraindicated with nitrates; grapefruit juice may increase concentration; delayed effect- longer acting than Viagra
  51. Yohimbe
    • -Generic:
    • -Class: herbal
    • -Indication: ED (not recommended)
    • -MOA: selective alpha 2 adrenergic blocker; vasodilatory; no proven efficacy
    • -Adverse Effects: dizziness, anxiety, flushing, headache, hypertension, tachycardia, tremor
    • -Patient Education:
    • -Other:
  52. Tussionex
    • -Generic: chlorpheniramine and hydrocodone
    • -Class: antitussive
    • -Indication: cough relief
    • -MOA:
    • -Adverse Effects: drowsiness, constipation
    • -Patient Education: shake well; avoid alcohol, >6 yoa
    • -Other: habit forming
  53. Antavert, Dramamine
    • -Generic: meclizine
    • -Class: histamine H1 antagonist (1st gen)
    • -Indication: allergies
    • -MOA:
    • -Adverse Effects: dry mouth, eyes, constipation and urinary retention
    • -Patient Education: dosed 4-6 hours
    • -Other:
  54. Vistaril
    • -Generic: hydroxyzine
    • -Class: 1st gen antihistamine
    • -Indication:
    • -MOA:
    • -Adverse Effects:
    • -Patient Education:
    • -Other:
  55. Allegra
    • -Generic: fexofenadine
    • -Class: 2nd gen antihistamine
    • -Indication:
    • -MOA:
    • -Adverse Effects:
    • -Patient Education:
    • -Other:
  56. Clarinex
    • -Generic: desloratidine
    • -Class:
    • -Indication:
    • -MOA:
    • -Adverse Effects:
    • -Patient Education:
    • -Other:
  57. Flexeril
    • -Generic: cyclobenzaprine
    • -Class: muscle relaxer
    • -Indication:
    • -MOA: CNS depressant: similar MOA to TCAs
    • -Adverse Effects: drowsiness, dizziness, muscle weakness
    • -Patient Education: avoid antidepressants and MAOis
    • -Other:
  58. Soma
    • -Generic: carisoprodol
    • -Class: muscle relaxer
    • -Indication:
    • -MOA:
    • -Adverse Effects:
    • -Patient Education:
    • -Other:
  59. Skelaxin
    • -Generic: metaxalone
    • -Class: alpha 2 adrenergic agonist
    • -Indication: muscle relaxer
    • -MOA: alpha 2 adrenergic agonist
    • -Adverse Effects: hypotension, somnolence, dizziness, muscle weakness
    • -Patient Education:
    • -Other:
  60. Zanaflex
    • -Generic: tizanidine
    • -Class: muscle relaxer
    • -Indication:
    • -MOA:
    • -Adverse Effects:
    • -Patient Education:
    • -Other:
  61. Robaxin
    • -Generic: methocarbamol
    • -Class: muscle relaxer
    • -Indication:
    • -MOA:
    • -Adverse Effects:
    • -Patient Education:
    • -Other:
  62. Aricept
    • -Generic: donepezil
    • -Class: acetylcholinesterase inhibitor
    • -Indication: Alzheimer's (mild to moderate)
    • -MOA: increases amounts of acetylcholine available in CNS
    • -Adverse Effects: insomnia, nausea, diarrhea, GI upset
    • -Patient Education: take at bedtime
    • -Other: no cure for Alzheimer's
  63. Namenda
    • -Generic: memantine
    • -Class: N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist
    • -Indication: Alzheimer's
    • -MOA: uncompetitive antagonist of glutamate receptors
    • -Adverse Effects: HTN, HA, CNS effects
    • -Patient Education:
    • -Other:
  64. Imitrex
    • -Generic:
    • -Class: Triptans (first line)
    • -Indication:
    • -MOA:
    • -Adverse Effects:
    • -Patient Education:
    • -Other: available as a nasal spray
  65. Reglan
    • -Generic: metoclopramide
    • -Class: pro-motility agent
    • -Indication: GERD, nausea/vomiting, gastroparesis
    • -MOA: increase the pressure in the lower esophageal sphincter and strengthen peristalsis of the stomach; speeds up stomach emptying
    • -Adverse Effects: weakness, somnolence; Serious: tardive dyskinesia, neuroleptic malignant syndrome
    • -Patient Education: take 30 minutes before meals and HS
    • -Other: does not heal inflammation

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