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automatic repetition of what another person says
- slow or no movement
- Parkinson disease
- facial expressions characterized by wide-open, fixed, staring eyes caused by rigidity of the facial muscles
- often seen in patients with Parkinson's Disease
- difficulty with movement
- inability to perform voluntary movement
Catechol O-methyltransferases (COMTs)
enzymes that inactivate dopamine
closed circuit of spinal and peripheral nerves, requires no control by the brain
- Counscious: reponsiveness of the mine to sensory stimuli
- Alertness: ability to react to stimuli
- Cognitive Power: ability to process the data and respond
- Unconscious: depressed cerebral fxn, inability to respond to simuli
- Confusion: disorientation to time, place, person. may seem alert. Responses to simple Q maybe correct, complex Q incorrect.
- Delirium: confusion, fear, agitation, hyperactivity, anxiety
- Lethargy: limited spontaneous movements, sluggish speech, drowsy, fall asleep easily
- Obtunded: limited response to environment, falls asleep unless given verbal/tactile stimulation
- Stupor: response to vigorous stim only, return to unresponsive when stim is removed
Persistent Vegetative State:
- Coma: severelydiminished response or unconsciousness, cannot be aroused even by painful stimuli
- Persistent Vegetative State: permanent loss of fxn of the cerebral cortex w/reflexive resposnes only
- assess cerebral motor or brainstem integrity
- close eyes, hold arms perpendicular to body w/palms up for 15-30sec. Weak side starts to fall/"drift", palm pronates.
- problem with proprioception, testing equilibrium
- Stand with arms at sides, feet/knees together, eyes open. Check for swaying.
- Romberg sign is swaying with eyes closed but not when eyes are open.
- (if both open and closed sway, prob is cerebellar)
- dorsifexion of the great toe and fanning of the other toes.
- abnormal if older than 2yr
- pathologic, abnormal reflex indicative of CNS disease
sudden, brief, jerking contraction of a musc or muscle group as in seizures
- Decortication: abn posture as seen in pt w/lesions that interrupt corticospinal pathway.
- Arms, wrists, fingers flexed w/internal rotation
- plantar flexion of legs
- Decerebration: extension of arms and legs, pronations of the arms, plantar flexion, opisthotonos (body spasm in which body is bowed forward)