BIO230 Microorganisms and Bacteria

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jswareham
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70880
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BIO230 Microorganisms and Bacteria
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2011-03-05 19:41:23
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Microorganisms bacteria coccus bacillus spiral
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CCBC BIO230 Dr. Jeffrey Test 1 material. Covers microorganisms. Bacterial cell structures. Cell structure function, chemical compostion, role in causing harm, and role in treatment.
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  1. Name 5 types of microorganisms.
    • Bacteria
    • Yeasts
    • Molds
    • Viruses
    • Protozoa
  2. Name the 5 Kingdoms of living organisms.
    • Animal
    • Plant
    • Monera (bacteria)
    • Fungi (yeast/molds)
    • Protista
    • (*viruses are not classified because they are not living organisms.)
  3. Name 3 places bacteria are normally not found in the body.
    • brain & spinal cord
    • heart & blood
    • kidneys
  4. Definition: True Pathogen
    Always cause harm

    *True & Opportunistic pathogens make up about 5% of all known bacteria.
  5. Definition: Opportunistic Pathogens
    • May cause harm if the right conditions exist.
    • -Weakened immune system
    • -Not located in normal location (UT infection)

    *True & Opportunistic pathogens make up about 5% of all known bacteria.
  6. Eukaryotic Cell (Higher Cells)
    1. Kingdoms -
    2. Nucleus -
    3. # of chromosomes -
    4. Shape of chromosomes -
    5. Mitotic method of cell division -
    6. Cytoplasmic structures -
    7. Cell walls -
    8. Flagella -
    9. Stucture of Flagella -
    • 1. animal, plant, fungi, protista
    • 2. present w/ nuclear membrane
    • 3. more than 1
    • 4. linear
    • 5. Yes
    • 6. Lots
    • 7. Animals; no, Plant & Fungi; yes (cellulose/starch), Protista; no
    • 8. some do
    • 9. 9+2 protein
  7. Prokaryotic Cell (Lower Cells)
    1. Kingdom -
    2. Nucleus -
    3. # of chromosomes -
    4. Shape of chromosomes -
    5. Mitotic method of cell division -
    6. Cytoplasmic structures -
    7. Cell walls -
    8. Flagella -
    9. Stucture of Flagella -
    • 1. Monera
    • 2. no Nucleus
    • 3. 1
    • 4. Circular
    • 5. No
    • 6. Few
    • 7. Yes - peptidoglycan
    • 8. Some do
    • 9. Single protein
  8. Acellular (Not Cells)
    1. Kingdom -
    2. Nucleus -
    3. # of chromosomes -
    4. Shape of chromosomes -
    5. Mitotic method of cell division -
    6. Cytoplasmic structures -
    7. Cell walls -
    8. Flagella -
    9. Stucture of Flagella -
    • 1. Not living; viruses
    • 2. no Nucleus
    • 3. 1
    • 4. Circular? or Linear?
    • 5. No
    • 6. None (no cytoplasm)
    • 7. No
    • 8. No
    • 9. No
  9. Shapes & sizes: Coccus (cocci)
    • Spherical in shape
    • 0.5 - 1.0 μm
    • Single (monococcus)
    • Pairs (diplococcus
    • Chains (streptococcus)
    • Bunches (staphylococcus)
    • Groups of 4 (tetrad)
    • Cubes (sarcina)
  10. Shapes & sizes: Bacillus (bacilli)
    • Rod shaped (elongated spheres)
    • 1.0 - 5.0 μm long, 0.5μm in diameter Single (monobacillus)
    • Double (diplobacillus)
    • Chains (streptobacillus)
  11. Shapes & sizes: Spiral
    • Spirillum
    • -5.5μm long, 1.0μm diameter
    • -Spiral shaped

    • Spirochete
    • -5.0 - 25.0μm long, 0.5μm diameter
    • -Tight spiral shaped

    • Vibrio
    • -Curved (comma) shape
  12. Shapes & sizes: Coccobaccilus
    Oval shaped - in between a coccus and bacillus
  13. Bacterial Structure; Cell Wall

    Function?
    -maintains proper shape & size of bacteria -Prevents bursting of bacteria
  14. Bacterial Structure; Cell Wall

    Chemical Composition G+
    Single thick layer of Peptidoglycan (PG)
  15. Bacterial Structure; Cell Wall

    Chemical Composition G-

    In order from outside of bacterial cell to the inside.
    • 1. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)
    • 2. Lipoproteins (LP)
    • 3. Phospholipid (PL)
    • 4. Peptidoglycan (PG)
  16. Bacterial Structure; Cell Wall

    Role in causing harm; G+
    Does not cause harm.
  17. Bacterial Structure; Cell Wall

    Role in causing harm; G-
    When the cell dies the LPS layer becomes an Endotoxin.
  18. Bacterial Structure; Cell Wall; G-; LPS Endotoxin

    3 General effects of LPS endotoxin.
    • 1. Stimulates inflation.
    • 2. Damages human cell membrane causing loss of cell fluid.
    • 3. Human cell necrosis (death) due to loss of cell fluid.
  19. Bacterial Structure; Cell Wall; G-; LPS Endotoxin

    5 specific effects of endotoxin in digestive tract.
    • 1. Nausea
    • 2. Vomiting
    • 3. Diarrhea
    • 4. Loss of fluid
    • 5. Dehydration
  20. Bacterial Structure; Cell Wall; G-; LPS Endotoxin

    3 specific effects of endotoxin in urinary tract.
    • 1. Urethritis
    • 2. Cystitis
    • 3. Nephritis (kidney)

    *80% of UT infections caused by G- bacteria
  21. Bacterial Structure; Cell Wall; G-; LPS Endotoxin

    Specific STD's caused by G- bacteria.
    • 1. Gonorrhea
    • 2. Chlamydia
    • 3. In males; urethritis, prostatitis, epididymitis
    • 4. In females; cervicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)
  22. Bacterial Structure; Cell Wall

    Role in treatment

    2 antibiotics used?
    Penicillin & Cephalosporin

    • -Block formation of PG in the cell wall
    • -Used mostly against G+ bacteria
  23. Bacterial Structure; Cell Membrane

    3 functions?
    • 1. Regulates what enters and leaves the cell.
    • 2. Site of cell wall repair & synthesis.
    • 3. Site of energy production in bacteria.
  24. Bacterial Structure; Cell Membrane

    2 functions in cell division?
    Binary fission (splits in 2); asexual reproduction of bacteria

    • 1. Helps separate DNA
    • 2. Builds new crosswall/septum to divide new cells
  25. Bacterial Structure; Cell Membrane

    Chemical Composition and 2 types of transport?
    Bilayer lipoprotein

    • 1. Small molecules move by passive transport (osmosis or diffusion)
    • 2. Large molecules move by active transport (attaching to proteins)
  26. Bacterial Structure; Cell Membrane

    Role in causing harm?
    None
  27. Bacterial Structure; Cell Membrane

    Role in treatement 4 types?
    1. Bacitracin-damages cell wall and membrane (topical).

    • 2. Polymyxin B - damages membrane (topical)
    • -Aerosporin
    • -Neosporin

    • 3. Soaps & Detergents
    • a. Scrubbing and lathering damages cell walls and membranes.
    • b. Synthetic detergents - less lathering but add chemical to damage membranes; Iodine (iodophore), Alcohol (tincture), Ammonia - common Quaternary NH3 compound called Quats (zephiron)

    4. Carbolic acids - damaged membrane; Lysol, Osyl, Cresol, Phenol, Phenol mixed w/ soap = hexachlorophene
  28. Bacterial Structure; Flagella

    Function?
    Motility (motion)
  29. Bacterial Structure; Flagella

    5 types of flagella?
    • 1. Monotrichous flagella - single tail
    • 2. Amphitrichous flagella - single tail from both ends of bacteria
    • 3. Polar lophotrichous flagella - multiple tails from one end of bacteria.
    • 4. Lophotrichous flagella - multiple tails from both ends of bacteria.
    • 5. Peritrichous flagella - multiple tails from all sides of bacterial cell
  30. Bacterial Structure; Flagella

    Chemical Composition?
    Made of protein called Flagellin
  31. Bacterial Structure; Flagella

    Coccus do not have flagella because most are G+.

    Bacillus and Spiral bacteria can have flagella
  32. Bacterial Structure; Flagella

    What are the 4 attachment points of flagella to the bacterail cell? In order starting from the outside of the cell working inward.
    1. L-Ring attaches to the LPS, LP, & PL layers of the cell wall.

    2. P-Ring attaches to the Peptidoglycan layer of the cell wall.

    3. S-ring attaches to the periplasmic space between the cell wall & cell membrane.

    4. M-Ring attaches to the cell membrane.
  33. Bacterial Structure; Flagella

    3 reasons, and terms, that cause flagellated bacteria to move.
    • 1. Chemotaxis - response to chemicals
    • a. When a chemical reaches the cell membrane the cell membrane will begin to vibrate, starting a chain reaction through the M, S, P and L rings (in that order)

    • 2. Phototaxis - response to light
    • a. Bacteria do no like light, in particular the heat

    3. Magnetotaxis - response to a magnetic field.
  34. Bacterial Structure; Flagella

    Role in causing harm?
    No direct role. Although, the flagella can move the bacteria to a location where other parts of the bacteria can cause harm.
  35. Bacterial Structure; Flagella

    Role in treatment?
    None
  36. Bacterial Structure; Pili

    Function?
    Attachment
  37. Bacterial Structure; Pili

    3 attachment functions of pili?
    • 1. Attachment to a food source.
    • 2. Attachment to prevent being flushed out.
    • 3. Attachment to other bacteria for sexual conjugation. Uses special pili called a fertility pilus (F-pilus) to transfer DNA material to another cell.
  38. Bacterial Structure; Pili

    Chemical Composition?
    Made of a protein called Pilin
  39. Bacterial Structure; Pili

    Role in causing harm?
    No direct role. Although piliated bacteria are harder to flush out.
  40. Bacterial Structure; Pili

    Example of piliated bacteria: Neisseria gonorrhea. Has 4 types of pili, what does each do?
    1st pili attaches to mucus membrane of genital tract

    2nd pili attaches to surface of white blood cells (neutrophils), prevents neutrophil from phagocytizing bacteria

    3rd pili attaches to sperm

    4th pili called F-pili allow for transfer of genes for antibiotic resistance.
  41. Bacterial Structure; Pili

    Role in treatment?
    None.
  42. Bacterial Structure; Nuclear Material

    Function?
    Regulates all cell activity and determines all cell characteristics.
  43. Bacterial Structure; Nuclear Material

    Chemical Composition?
    1. # of chromosomes?
    2. Shape of chromosome?
    3. Nucleus present?
    4. Length of chromosome?
    Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid (DNA)

    • 1. 1
    • 2. Circular
    • 3. No
    • 4. 1mm
  44. Bacterial Structure; Nuclear Material

    Role in causing harm?
    No direct role in causing harm. Although the DNA does code for all harmful characteristics of the bacteria.
  45. Bacterial Structure; Nuclear Material

    Role in treatement? 1 antibiotic
    Malidixic acid
  46. Bacterial Structure; Nuclear Material

    What are Plasmids?
    Extra chromosomal pieces of DNA

    Plasmids are what is transferred through F-pili during sexual reproduction.

    Most plasmids code for antibiotic resistance.
  47. Bacterial Structure; Ribosomes

    Function?
    Site of protein synthesis.
  48. Bacterial Structure; Ribosomes

    Chemical Compostion?
    RNA and Proteins
  49. Bacterial Structure; Ribosomes

    What are the 2 parts of a ribosome?
    30S and 50S
  50. Bacterial Structure; Ribosomes

    Role in causing harm?
    No direct role in causing harm. Although, some bacteria produce exotoxins made of proteins the ribosomes synthesized.
  51. Bacterial Structure; Ribosomes

    Role in treatement? 2 ways to damage ribosomes.
    1. Antibiotics will cause the 30S and 50S components to separate.

    2. Antiseptics & Disinfectants will damage ribosomes and the proteins made by ribosomes.
  52. Bacterial Structure; Ribosomes; Role in treatement; Antibiotics

    6 broad spectrum antibiotics that damage the ribosomes?
    • Streptomycin
    • Erythromycin
    • Tetramycin
    • Azithromycin
    • Clindamycin
    • Doxycycline

    *there are other side effects when using these antibiotics.
  53. Bacterial Structure; Ribosomes; Role in treatement; Antiseptics & Disinfectants

    5 antiseptics & disinfectants used to damage ribosomes.
    1. Alcohols (tinctures) - methanol, ethanol, isopropanol,

    • 2. Heavy metals
    • a. Silver - used as 1% AgNO3 , prevents ophthalmia neonatum blindness from gonorrhea.
    • b. Mercury - used topically as merthiolate or mercurochrome

    • 3. Halogens
    • a. Fluorine (fluoride), all water is fluoridated, Prevents oral infections, Toothpastes, mouthwashes
    • b. Chlorine, Public water (drinking & recreational), Prevents gastrointestinal infections, Sodium hypochlorate - bleach
    • c. Iodine, Skin antiseptic
    • d. Bromine, Used in hot tubs

    4. Aldehydes - very strong antibiotic, Formaldehyde, Glutaraldehyde

    5. Ethylene oxide gas, used to destroy microorganisms in highly infectious waste, Gas sterilizer
  54. Bacterial Structure; Capsule

    5 funtions?
    • 1. Prevents phagocytosis by white blood cells
    • 2. Site of stored sugars for bacteria
    • 3. Prevents dehydration of bacteria
    • 4. Prevents viral infections of bacteria
    • 5. Attachment
  55. Bacterial Structure; Capsule

    Chemical composition?
    Capsules are made of a complex of sugars. Mucopolysaccharides or mucocomplex
  56. Bacterial Structure; Capsule

    Role in causing harm?
    Blockages

    • -Bacteria with capsules can infect the respiratory tract (bronchi & lungs)
    • -Pneumonia
    • -Clogs respiratory passages causing heart to work harder
  57. Bacterial Structure; Capsule

    Role in treatment?
    None.
  58. Bacterial Structure; Endopores (only found in certain bacteria)

    Function?
    Survival in harsh environments.
  59. Bacterial Structure; Endopores

    Chemical composition; what is the name for bacterial spore synthesis?
    Sporulation - bacterial spore synthesis
  60. Bacterial Structure; Endopores

    What are the 4 steps to sporulation?
    • 1. Vegetative cell,bacteria without spore, copies DNA
    • 2. then copies ribosomes
    • 3. Surrounds spore with membrane and wall
    • 4. Surrounds spore with 3 protective layers - this is called a forespore
  61. Bacterial Structure; Endopores

    What are the 3 protective layers of a forespore?
    • 1. Cortex - calcium & proteins
    • 2. Spore coat - dipicolimic acid (DPA)
    • 3. Exosporium - calcium & peptidoglycan
  62. Bacterial Structure; Endopores

    Role in causing harm?
    No direct role in causing harm. Spore must germinate into a bacteria cell to cause harm.
  63. Bacterial Structure; Endopores

    5 important infections caused by spore forming bacteria?
    • 1. Anthrax - Bacillus anthraces
    • 2. Tetanus - Clostridium tetani
    • 3. Botulism - Clostridium botulinum
    • 4. Gas gangrene - Clostridium perfringens
    • 5. Clostridium difficile (C. diff)
  64. Bacterial Structure; Endopores; Anthrax

    1. Name
    2. Type
    3. Where found
    4. Entry into humans
    5. Type of exotoxin produced
    • 1. Bacillus anthraces
    • 2. G+ aerobe
    • 3. found in deep soil
    • 4. Spore can be breathed in dust particles, or on skin.
    • 5. Necrotizing exotoxin.
  65. Bacterial Structure; Endopores; Tetanus

    1. Name
    2. Type
    3. Where found
    4. Entry into humans
    5. Type of exotoxin produced
    • 1. Clostridium tetani
    • 2. G+ anaerobe
    • 3. Intestines of large animals > animal feces > in the soil.
    • 4. Spore must be introduced into an anaerobic environment via a puncture wound.
    • 5. Neurotoxin called tetanospasmin
  66. Bacterial Structure; Endopores; Tetanus; Exotoxin; Tetanospasmin

    What is the mechanism by which tetanospasmin works?
    • 1. Tetanospasmin blocks and enzyme called Cholinesterase.
    • 2. Cholinesterase breaks down a neurotransmitter in the synapse called Acetylcholine. (acetylcholine sends messages to the brain to contract muscles)
    • 3. In the absense of Cholinesterase Acetylcholine is not broken down and the muscles stay contracted.
  67. Bacterial Structure; Endopores; Tetanus; Exotoxin; Tetanospasmin

    Why is tetanus sometimes referred to as "lock jaw"?
    Effects the head and neck area first
  68. Bacterial Structure; Endopores; Botulism

    1. Name
    2. Type
    3. Where found
    4. Entry into humans
    5. Type of exotoxin produced
    • 1. Clostridium botulinum
    • 2. G+ anaerobe
    • 3. Intestines of large animals > animal feces > in the soil.
    • 4. Food grown in soil containing Botulism is canned, introducing it into and anaerobic environment. Germination and toxin production is done in can. (there is also puncture wound Botulism.)
    • 5. Neurotoxin called botox
  69. Bacterial Structure; Endopores; Botulism; Exotoxin; Botox

    What is the mechanism by which botox works?
    Botox blocks the production of acetylcholine, causing all muscles to relax. Eventually, you suffocate because your diaphragm muscle will not contract.
  70. Bacterial Structure; Endopores; Gas Gangrene

    1. Name
    2. Type
    3. Where found
    4. Entry into humans
    5. Type of exotoxin produced
    • 1. Clostridium perfringens
    • 2. G+ anaerobe
    • 3. Intestines of large animals > animal feces > in the soil
    • 4. Spore must be introduced into an anaerobic environment via a puncture wound.
    • 5. Necrotic and kills cells & tissues
  71. Bacterial Structure; Endopores; Gas Gangrene; Exotoxin

    Characteristics of a Gas Gangrene infection?
    1.Tissue necrosis, softens, wet, discolored, bad odor, a gas is produced causing tissue to stretch

    2. Gets into blood stream and vital organs leading to organ death - crepitation.
  72. Bacterial Structure; Endopores; Clostridium difficile

    1. Name
    2. Type
    3. Where found
    4. Problem area for humans
    5. Problem exotoxin produces
    • 1. Clostridium difficile (C. diff)
    • 2. G+ anaerobe
    • 3. Spores are found in intestines, including humans
    • 4. Spores can get into abscesses in lining of intestines
    • 5. Causes chronic intestinal problems

    (Spores can also get onto sores on the skin and cause severe infections)
  73. Bacterial Structure; Endopores

    Role in treatment?
    • There are no antibiotics that can kill spores.
    • Antibiotics can only be used after spores germinate.

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