Operations Ch2

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tmmalone
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70889
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Operations Ch2
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2011-03-05 16:03:33
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Operations Ch2
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Operations Ch2
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  1. Chapter 2
    Processes Planning and Design: This chapter discusses the selection and design of the transformation process that can deliver those factors—low cost, high quality, enhanced functionality, speed, and so on—in an efficient and effective manner.
  2. Forms of Transformation Systems
    —
    • - Transformation system design considers alternative transformation forms and selects best one given characteristics of desired outputs.
    • - Layout analysis seeks to maximize the efficiency or effectiveness of operations.
  3. Forms of Transformation Systems
    • Continuous process
    • Flow shop
    • Job shop
    • Cellular production
    • Project operations
  4. Forms of Transformation Systems: Continuous Process
    —
    • - Highly standardized products in large volumes —
    • - Often these products have become commodities —
    • - Typically these processes operate 24 hours/day seven days/week
    • - Objective is to spread fixed cost over as large a volume as possible
    • - Starting and stopping a continuous process can be prohibitively expensive
    • - Highly automated and specialized equipment used
    • - Layout follows the processing stages - Output rate controlled through equipment capacity and flow mixture rates
    • - Low labor requirements
    • - Often one primary input
    • - Initial setup of equipment and procedures very complex
  5. Forms of Transformation Systems: Flow Shop
    —
    • - Similar to continuous process except discrete product is produced —
    • - Heavily automated special purpose equipment —
    • - High volume - low variety —
    • - Both services and products can use flow shop form of processing
  6. A Generalized Flow Shop Operation
  7. Advantages of the Flow Shop
    —
    • - Low unit cost because...
    • ◦specialized high volume equipment
    • ◦bulk purchasing
    • ◦lower labor rates
    • ◦low in-process inventories
    • ◦simplified managerial control
  8. Disadvantages of Flow Shop
    —
    • - Variety of output difficult to obtain
    • - Difficult to change rate of output
    • -—Minor design changes may require substantial changes to the equipment -—Worker boredom and absenteeism
    • -—Work not very challenging
    • -Vulnerable to equipment breakdowns
  9. Flow Shop Layout
    —
    • - Objective is to assign tasks to groups
    • - The work assigned to each group should take about the same amount of time to complete —
    • - Final assembly operations with more labor input often subdivided easier
    • -Paced versus unpaced lines
  10. Forms of Transformation Systems: Job Shop
    —
    • - High variety - low volume —
    • - Equipment and staff grouped based on function —
    • - Each output processed differently
  11. A Generalized Job Shop Operation
  12. Advantages of the Job Shop
    —
    • - Flexibility to respond to individual demands —
    • - Less expensive general purpose equipment used —
    • - Maintenance and installation of general purpose equipment easier
    • - General purpose equipment easier to modify and therefore less susceptible to becoming obsolete
    • - Pace of work not dictated by moving line
    • - Less vulnerable to equipment breakdowns
  13. Disadvantages of the Job Shop
    —
    • - General purpose equipment is slower
    • - Higher direct labor cost —
    • - High WIP inventories —
    • - High material handling costs
    • - Management control very difficult
  14. Directly Specified Closeness Preferences
    • A = absolutely necessary —
    • E = especially important —
    • I = important —
    • O = ordinary closeness OK —
    • U = unimportant —
    • X = undesirable
  15. Cost-Volume-Distance Model
  16. Forms of Transformation Systems: Cellular Production- The Cell Form
    —
    • Combines flexibility of job shop with low costs and short response times of flow shop —
    • Based on group technology —
    • First identify part families —
    • Then form machine cells to produce part families
  17. Conversion of a Job Shop Layout to a Cellular Layout
  18. Forms of Transformation Systems: Project Operations
    —
    • Large scale —
    • Finite duration —
    • Nonrepetitive —
    • Multiple interdependent activities
  19. Selection of the Process: Volume/Variety Considerations
    • High volume indicate automated mass production
    • High variety implies use of skilled labor and general purpose equipment
    • Make-to-stock versus make-to-order
  20. Selection of Transformation System by Stage of Life Cycle

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