Lab Final - Book Notes

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Lab Final - Book Notes
2011-03-05 18:43:00
Lab Final Book Notes

Lab Final - Book Notes
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  1. Rapid identification methods have been developed which provide a large number of results from one inoculation. What example of this did we complete in lab?
    Entertube II - Lab 14
  2. Enterotube II is divided into ___ compartments, each containing a different substrate in agar
  3. The substrates in an un-icocculated Enterotube II are ___ by adding a bacterial suspension
  4. The observation that some microbes ___ the growth of others was made as early as 1874
  5. ___ and others ovserved that infecting an animal with Pseudomonas aeruginosa protected the animal against Bacillus anthracis
  6. Antibiosis means ___ ___.
    against life
  7. Alexander Fleming observed ___ around a mold (Penicillium) growth on a culture of staph
  8. A. Waksman isolated the antibiotic streptomycin, produced by an antinocymete. This antibiotic was effective against many bacteria that were not affected by ___.
  9. Antimicrobial chemicals absorbed or used internally, whether natural (antibiotics) or synthetic, are called ___ ___.
    chemotherapeutic agents
  10. The concentration of a chemotherapeutic agent at the edge of the zone of inhibition represents its ___ ___ ___.
    minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)
  11. ___-___ agar allows the chemotherapeutic agent to diffuse freely.
  12. After making a lawn of bacteria to test certain antibiotics, how long should you let it stand before placing the antibiotic disks on it?
    5 minutes
  13. What type of agar plate will be used for the hand washing lab?
    BAP (2)
  14. Semmelweis established a policy for the medical students of hand washing with a chloride of lime solution that resulted in a drop in the death rate due to ___ ___ from 12% to 1.2% in one year.
    puerperal sepsis
  15. Hospitals show hand washing rates as low as ___.
  16. Microbes that are present only for days or weeks are referred to as ___ ___.
    transient microbiota
  17. The upper respiratory system consists of the ___ & ___
    nose and throat
  18. The lower respiratory system consists of the ___, ___, ___ ___, & ___.
    larynx, trachea, bronchial tubes, and alveoli
  19. The lower respiratory tract is normally ___ because of the efficient functioning of the ciliary escalator
  20. The upper respiratory system is in contact with the air we breathe, which is ___ with microorganisms.
  21. The throat is a moist, warm environment, allowing many ___ to establish residence
  22. Species of many different genera such as staphylococcus, Meisseria, and Haemophilus can be found living as _ microbiota in the throat.
  23. Despite the presence of potentially pathogenic bacteria in the upper respiratory system, the rate of infection is minimized by ___ ___.
    microbial antagonism
  24. Certain microorganisms of the normal microbiota suppress the growth of other microorganisms through competition for nutrients and production of ___ ___.
    inhibitory substances
  25. ___ species are the predominant organisms in throat cultures, and some species are the major cause of bacterial sore throats ( acute pharyngitis).
  26. Streptococci are identified by ___ ___, including hemolytic reactions and antigenic characteristics (Lancefield’s system).
    biochemical characteristics
  27. ___ ___ are based on hemolysins that are produced by streptococci while growing on blood agar.
    Hemolytic reactions
  28. Blood agar is usually made with defibrinated ___ blood (5.0%), sodium chloride (0.5%) to minimize spontaneous ___, and nutrient agar.
    sheep & hemolysis
  29. Complete hemolysis, giving a clear zone with a clean edge around the colony
    Beta hemolysis
  30. Incomplete hemolysis, producing methemoglobin and a green, cloudy zone around the colony
    Alpha hemolysis
  31. No hemolysis, and no change in the blood agar around the colony
    Gamma hemolysis
  32. Strep that is Alpha or Gamma is normal ___ of the throat
  33. Strep that is ___ hemolytic are frequent pathogens
  34. The streptococci can be antigenically classified into ___ groups A through O by antigens in their cell walls.
  35. Over 90% of streptococcal infections are caused by beta hemolytic group A strep – these bacteria are assigned to the species _ ___, which are sensitive to the antibiotic bactitracin
    S. pyogenes
  36. Other strep are resistant to bactitracin, so ___ is used as well to distinguish between the pathogenic S.pneumoniae and other alpha hemolytic strep
  37. In the throat culture, what area of the throat is being swabbed?
    Glossopalatine arches (golden arches)
  38. The presence of bacteria in urine is not considered an indication of ___ ___ ___ unless there are 1000 bacteria of one species or 100 coliforms per milliliter of urine.
    urinary tract infection
  39. Many infections of the urinary tract, such as ___ or ___, are caused by opportunistic pathogens and are related to fecal contamination of the urethra, and to medical procedures, such as catheterization.
    cystitis or pyelonephritis
  40. Pseudomonas is a ___-___ aerobic rod
  41. Pseudomonas aeroginosa is commonly found in the ___ and other environments.
  42. Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections are characterized by ___ ___ pus. This bacterium produces an extracellular, water-soluble pigment called pyocyanin (“blue pus”) that diffuses into its growth medium.
  43. The most common reportable communicable disease in the US is ___, an STD.
  44. To determine the total number of cfu/ml, you must divide the ___ of ___ by 0.00001
    number of colonies
  45. In urine inoculation, what will be used in place of the metal inoculation loop?
    Sterile 10 μl calibrated loop