Rapid identification methods have been developed which provide a large number of results from one inoculation. What example of this did we complete in lab?
Entertube II - Lab 14
Enterotube II is divided into ___ compartments, each containing a different substrate in agar
The substrates in an un-icocculated Enterotube II are ___ by adding a bacterial suspension
The observation that some microbes ___ the growth of others was made as early as 1874
___ and others ovserved that infecting an animal with Pseudomonas aeruginosa protected the animal against Bacillus anthracis
Antibiosis means ___ ___.
Alexander Fleming observed ___ around a mold (Penicillium) growth on a culture of staph
A. Waksman isolated the antibiotic streptomycin, produced by an antinocymete. This antibiotic was effective against many bacteria that were not affected by ___.
Antimicrobial chemicals absorbed or used internally, whether natural (antibiotics) or synthetic, are called ___ ___.
The concentration of a chemotherapeutic agent at the edge of the zone of inhibition represents its ___ ___ ___.
minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)
___-___ agar allows the chemotherapeutic agent to diffuse freely.
After making a lawn of bacteria to test certain antibiotics, how long should you let it stand before placing the antibiotic disks on it?
What type of agar plate will be used for the hand washing lab?
Semmelweis established a policy for the medical students of hand washing with a chloride of lime solution that resulted in a drop in the death rate due to ___ ___ from 12% to 1.2% in one year.
Hospitals show hand washing rates as low as ___.
Microbes that are present only for days or weeks are referred to as ___ ___.
The upper respiratory system consists of the ___ & ___
nose and throat
The lower respiratory system consists of the ___, ___, ___ ___, & ___.
larynx, trachea, bronchial tubes, and alveoli
The lower respiratory tract is normally ___ because of the efficient functioning of the ciliary escalator
The upper respiratory system is in contact with the air we breathe, which is ___ with microorganisms.
The throat is a moist, warm environment, allowing many ___ to establish residence
Species of many different genera such as staphylococcus, Meisseria, and Haemophilus can be found living as _ microbiota in the throat.
Despite the presence of potentially pathogenic bacteria in the upper respiratory system, the rate of infection is minimized by ___ ___.
Certain microorganisms of the normal microbiota suppress the growth of other microorganisms through competition for nutrients and production of ___ ___.
___ species are the predominant organisms in throat cultures, and some species are the major cause of bacterial sore throats ( acute pharyngitis).
Streptococci are identified by ___ ___, including hemolytic reactions and antigenic characteristics (Lancefield’s system).
___ ___ are based on hemolysins that are produced by streptococci while growing on blood agar.
Blood agar is usually made with defibrinated ___ blood (5.0%), sodium chloride (0.5%) to minimize spontaneous ___, and nutrient agar.
sheep & hemolysis
Complete hemolysis, giving a clear zone with a clean edge around the colony
Incomplete hemolysis, producing methemoglobin and a green, cloudy zone around the colony
No hemolysis, and no change in the blood agar around the colony
Strep that is Alpha or Gamma is normal ___ of the throat
Strep that is ___ hemolytic are frequent pathogens
The streptococci can be antigenically classified into ___ groups A through O by antigens in their cell walls.
Over 90% of streptococcal infections are caused by beta hemolytic group A strep – these bacteria are assigned to the species _ ___, which are sensitive to the antibiotic bactitracin
Other strep are resistant to bactitracin, so ___ is used as well to distinguish between the pathogenic S.pneumoniae and other alpha hemolytic strep
In the throat culture, what area of the throat is being swabbed?
Glossopalatine arches (golden arches)
The presence of bacteria in urine is not considered an indication of ___ ___ ___ unless there are 1000 bacteria of one species or 100 coliforms per milliliter of urine.
urinary tract infection
Many infections of the urinary tract, such as ___ or ___, are caused by opportunistic pathogens and are related to fecal contamination of the urethra, and to medical procedures, such as catheterization.
cystitis or pyelonephritis
Pseudomonas is a ___-___ aerobic rod
Pseudomonas aeroginosa is commonly found in the ___ and other environments.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections are characterized by ___ ___ pus. This bacterium produces an extracellular, water-soluble pigment called pyocyanin (“blue pus”) that diffuses into its growth medium.
The most common reportable communicable disease in the US is ___, an STD.
To determine the total number of cfu/ml, you must divide the ___ of ___ by 0.00001
number of colonies
In urine inoculation, what will be used in place of the metal inoculation loop?