What is the study of the biological function of the nervous system?
What is the study of the structure of the nervous system?
Based on anatomical components, what division of the nervous system is made up of the brain and spinal cord?
central nervous system
Based on anatomical components, what division of the nervous system is made up of cranial nerves, spinal nerves, and ganglia?
peripheral nervous system
Define cranial nerve.
nerves that extend from the brain
Define spinal nerve.
nerves that extend from the spinal cord
a cluster of neuron cell bodies located outside the CNS
What subdivision of the sensory division of the nervous system deals with general senses of the body wall?
What subdivision of the sensory division of the nervous system deals with stretch and temperature from blood vessels and internal organs?
What subdivision of the motor division of the nervous system controls skeletal muscles?
What subdivision of the nervous system is involuntary and controls cardiac and smooth muscle glands?
What type of cell initiates and transmits impulses within the nervous system?
What type of cells support and protect neurons?
What part of a neuron holds the nucleus and is the control center of the cell?
What part of a neruon conducts impulses toward the cell body?
What part of a neuron conducts impulses away from the cell body?
What is a cablelike bundle of parallel axons?
What is a functional connection for the transmission of impulses from a neuron to a second cell?
When does the nervous system begin to develop?
during the third week
From which germ layer does the nervous system develop?
What is the thickened portion of tissue over the notochord called?
What is the process in which structures of the nervous system are formed?
During the development of the nervous system, what longitudinal indentation forms from the neural plate?
During the development of the nervous system, what hollow structure is formed as the neural folds meet?
What is the average range of weight of the human brain?
1.35 - 1.4 kilograms
What is the average volume of the human brain?
1200 - 1500 cc
How many neurons make up the CNS?
What type of tissue within the CNS houses motor neuron and interneuron cell bodies, dendrites, telodendria, and unmyelinated axons?
What type of tissue within the CNS houses myelinated axons?
What is the superifical sheet of gray matter covering most of the adult brain?
Within the interior of the brain, what are clusters of gray matter?
Collectively, what are the three connective tissue layers that separate the soft tissue of the brain from the bones of the cranium, enclose and protect blood vessels that supply the brain, and contain and circulate cerebrospinal fluid?
Surrounding the CNS, what is the external tough, dense irregular connective tissue layer composed of two fibrous layers?
What are the two layers of the dura mater?
meningeal & periosteal layers
What spaces are formed when the two layers of the dura mater separate?
dural venous sinuses
What potential space lies between the dura and the cranium?
Which meninx is deep to and in contact with the dura?
What potential space lies between the dura and the arachnoid?
What real space lies just deep to the arachnoid?
What meninx is the deepest and, unlike that others, follows the contour of the brain?
What is the clear, colorless liquid that circulates in the ventricles and subarachnoid space of the brain?
Within the ventricles of the brain, what structures form CSF?
About how much CSF is formed every day?
About how much CSF is within and around the CNS at any one time?
What structures reabsorb CSF?
What is the outer layer of gray matter of the cerebrum?
What are the elevated ridges on the surface of the cerebrum?
What are the shallow depressions on the surface of the cerebrum?
What are the deep grooves of the cerebrum?
What are the two halves of the cerebrum?
What deep groove separates the two halves of the cerebrum?
What large tract of white matter connects the two halves of the cerebrum and is the main method of communication between them?
How many lobes lie within the cerebral hemisphere?
What is the most anterior of the cerebral lobes?
What are the anatomical borders of the most anterior of the cerebral lobes?
central sulcus & lateral sulcus
What important anatomical feature of the frontal lobe lies immediately anterior to the central sulcus?
What lobe of the cerebrum forms the superoposterior part of each cerebral hemisphere?
What important anatomical feature lies immediately posterior to the central sulcus?
post central gyrus
What lobe of the cerebrum lies inferior to the lateral sulcus?
What lobe of the cerebrum forms the most posterior region of each cerebral hemisphere?
What small, deep lobe of each cerebral hemisphere lies deep to the lateral sulcus?
The primary motor cortex is located within what structure of the brain?
The motor speech area is located within what region of the brain?
broca area- inferolateral portion of the left frontal lobe
The frontal eye field is located within what region of the brain?
superior surface of the middle frontal gyrus
Where does the primary somatosensory cortex lie?
post central gyrus of the parietal bones
Where does the primary visual cortex occur?
Where does the primary auditory cortex occur?
Where does the gustatory cortex occur?
What is the function of the gustatory cortex?
processing taste information
Where does the olfactory cortex occur?
What are bundles of myelinated axons that lie deep to the cerebral cortex?
What are paired, irregular masses of gray matter buried deep within the central white matter in the basal region of the cerebral hemispheres inferior to the floor of the lateral ventricle?
What part of the brain is composed of the epithalamus, right and left thalami, and the hypothalamus?
What structure partially forms the posterior roof of the diencephalons and covers the third ventricle?
What are the paired structres on either side of the third ventricle?
What part of the brain lies inferior to the thalamus?
What structure attaches the hypothalamus to the pituitary gland?
What three regions form the brainstem?
midbrain, pons, & medulla oblongata
What is a synonym for mesencephalon?
Within the midbrain, what are the motor tracts located on the anterolateral surfaces?
Within the midbrain, what is the "body of four twins"?
What are the "visual reflex centers" of the midbrain?
What are the "auditory reflex centers" of the midbrain?
What is the bulging region on the anterior part of the brainstem?
What is the most inferior part of the brainstem?
What is the sceond largest part of the brain?
What are the right and left halves of the cerebellum?
What wormlike structure of the cerebellum lies between the two cerebellar hemispheres?
What thick tracts connect the cerebellum to the brainstem?