Anatomy Chapter 20

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LaizyDaizy79
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70936
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Anatomy Chapter 20
Updated:
2011-04-11 22:53:15
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Human Anatomy
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CNS
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  1. What is the study of the nervous system?
    neurology
  2. What is surgery involving the nervous system?
    neurosurgery
  3. What is the study of the biological function of the nervous system?
    neurophysiology
  4. What is the study of the structure of the nervous system?
    neruoanatomy
  5. Based on anatomical components, what division of the nervous system is made up of the brain and spinal cord?
    central nervous system
  6. Based on anatomical components, what division of the nervous system is made up of cranial nerves, spinal nerves, and ganglia?
    peripheral nervous system
  7. Define cranial nerve.
    nerves that extend from the brain
  8. Define spinal nerve.
    nerves that extend from the spinal cord
  9. Define ganglia.
    a cluster of neuron cell bodies located outside the CNS
  10. What subdivision of the sensory division of the nervous system deals with general senses of the body wall?
    somatic sensory
  11. What subdivision of the sensory division of the nervous system deals with stretch and temperature from blood vessels and internal organs?
    visceral sensory
  12. What subdivision of the motor division of the nervous system controls skeletal muscles?
    somatic motor
  13. What subdivision of the nervous system is involuntary and controls cardiac and smooth muscle glands?
    autonomic motor
  14. What type of cell initiates and transmits impulses within the nervous system?
    neuron
  15. What type of cells support and protect neurons?
    glial cells
  16. What part of a neuron holds the nucleus and is the control center of the cell?
    cell body
  17. What part of a neruon conducts impulses toward the cell body?
    dendrites
  18. What part of a neuron conducts impulses away from the cell body?
    axon
  19. What is a cablelike bundle of parallel axons?
    nerve
  20. What is a functional connection for the transmission of impulses from a neuron to a second cell?
    synapses
  21. When does the nervous system begin to develop?
    during the third week
  22. From which germ layer does the nervous system develop?
    ectoderm
  23. What is the thickened portion of tissue over the notochord called?
    neural plate
  24. What is the process in which structures of the nervous system are formed?
    neurulation
  25. During the development of the nervous system, what longitudinal indentation forms from the neural plate?
    neural groove
  26. During the development of the nervous system, what hollow structure is formed as the neural folds meet?
    neural tube
  27. What is the average range of weight of the human brain?
    1.35 - 1.4 kilograms
  28. What is the average volume of the human brain?
    1200 - 1500 cc
  29. How many neurons make up the CNS?
    100 billion
  30. What type of tissue within the CNS houses motor neuron and interneuron cell bodies, dendrites, telodendria, and unmyelinated axons?
    gray matter
  31. What type of tissue within the CNS houses myelinated axons?
    white matter
  32. What is the superifical sheet of gray matter covering most of the adult brain?
    cortex
  33. Within the interior of the brain, what are clusters of gray matter?
    cerbral nuclei
  34. Collectively, what are the three connective tissue layers that separate the soft tissue of the brain from the bones of the cranium, enclose and protect blood vessels that supply the brain, and contain and circulate cerebrospinal fluid?
    cranial meninges
  35. Surrounding the CNS, what is the external tough, dense irregular connective tissue layer composed of two fibrous layers?
    dura mater
  36. What are the two layers of the dura mater?
    meningeal & periosteal layers
  37. What spaces are formed when the two layers of the dura mater separate?
    dural venous sinuses
  38. What potential space lies between the dura and the cranium?
    epidural space
  39. Which meninx is deep to and in contact with the dura?
    arachnoid
  40. What potential space lies between the dura and the arachnoid?
    subdural space
  41. What real space lies just deep to the arachnoid?
    subarchnoid space
  42. What meninx is the deepest and, unlike that others, follows the contour of the brain?
    pia mater
  43. What is the clear, colorless liquid that circulates in the ventricles and subarachnoid space of the brain?
    cerebrospinal fluid
  44. Within the ventricles of the brain, what structures form CSF?
    choroid plexus
  45. About how much CSF is formed every day?
    500 mL
  46. About how much CSF is within and around the CNS at any one time?
    100-160 mL
  47. What structures reabsorb CSF?
    aracnoid villi
  48. What is the outer layer of gray matter of the cerebrum?
    cerebral cortex
  49. What are the elevated ridges on the surface of the cerebrum?
    gyri
  50. What are the shallow depressions on the surface of the cerebrum?
    sulci
  51. What are the deep grooves of the cerebrum?
    fissures
  52. What are the two halves of the cerebrum?
    cerebral hemispheres
  53. What deep groove separates the two halves of the cerebrum?
    longitudinal fissure
  54. What large tract of white matter connects the two halves of the cerebrum and is the main method of communication between them?
    corpus callosum
  55. How many lobes lie within the cerebral hemisphere?
    5
  56. What is the most anterior of the cerebral lobes?
    frontal lobe
  57. What are the anatomical borders of the most anterior of the cerebral lobes?
    central sulcus & lateral sulcus
  58. What important anatomical feature of the frontal lobe lies immediately anterior to the central sulcus?
    precentral gyrus
  59. What lobe of the cerebrum forms the superoposterior part of each cerebral hemisphere?
    parietal lobe
  60. What important anatomical feature lies immediately posterior to the central sulcus?
    post central gyrus
  61. What lobe of the cerebrum lies inferior to the lateral sulcus?
    temporal lobe
  62. What lobe of the cerebrum forms the most posterior region of each cerebral hemisphere?
    occipital lobe
  63. What small, deep lobe of each cerebral hemisphere lies deep to the lateral sulcus?
    insula
  64. The primary motor cortex is located within what structure of the brain?
    precentral gyrus
  65. The motor speech area is located within what region of the brain?
    broca area- inferolateral portion of the left frontal lobe
  66. The frontal eye field is located within what region of the brain?
    superior surface of the middle frontal gyrus
  67. Where does the primary somatosensory cortex lie?
    post central gyrus of the parietal bones
  68. Where does the primary visual cortex occur?
    occipital lobe
  69. Where does the primary auditory cortex occur?
    temporal lobe
  70. Where does the gustatory cortex occur?
    insula
  71. What is the function of the gustatory cortex?
    processing taste information
  72. Where does the olfactory cortex occur?
    temporal lobe
  73. What are bundles of myelinated axons that lie deep to the cerebral cortex?
    tracts
  74. What are paired, irregular masses of gray matter buried deep within the central white matter in the basal region of the cerebral hemispheres inferior to the floor of the lateral ventricle?
    cerebral nuclei
  75. What part of the brain is composed of the epithalamus, right and left thalami, and the hypothalamus?
    diencephalon
  76. What structure partially forms the posterior roof of the diencephalons and covers the third ventricle?
    epithalamus
  77. What are the paired structres on either side of the third ventricle?
    thalamus
  78. What part of the brain lies inferior to the thalamus?
    hypothalamus
  79. What structure attaches the hypothalamus to the pituitary gland?
    infundibulum
  80. What three regions form the brainstem?
    midbrain, pons, & medulla oblongata
  81. What is a synonym for mesencephalon?
    midbrain
  82. Within the midbrain, what are the motor tracts located on the anterolateral surfaces?
    cerebral peduncles
  83. Within the midbrain, what is the "body of four twins"?
    corpora quadrigemina
  84. What are the "visual reflex centers" of the midbrain?
    superior colliculi
  85. What are the "auditory reflex centers" of the midbrain?
    inferior colliculi
  86. What is the bulging region on the anterior part of the brainstem?
    pons
  87. What is the most inferior part of the brainstem?
    medulla oblongata
  88. What is the sceond largest part of the brain?
    cerebellum
  89. What are the right and left halves of the cerebellum?
    cerebral hemispheres
  90. What wormlike structure of the cerebellum lies between the two cerebellar hemispheres?
    vermis
  91. What thick tracts connect the cerebellum to the brainstem?
    cerebellar peduncles

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