The Circulatory and Respiratory Systems and Related Care
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What is Angina Pectoris?
Heart pain that results from insufficient blood flow and oxygen to the heart muscle.
What is arteriosclerosis?
the walls of the arteries become thicker with fatty deposits and less elastic than they should be for the normal regulation of blood flow and blood pressure
What is the function of the red blood cells (rbc) and the white blood cells (wbc)?
red blood cells --> carry oxygen
white blood cells --> fight infection
What is the blood pressure (BP) a measure of?
measurement of the heart contracting and relaxing
What happens in systoli and diastoli?
systolic --> when the heart contracts to pump deoxygenated blood to the lungs and oxygenated blood to the body
diatolic --> when the heart is at rest
How many chambers are in the heart, and what do the chambers do?
- right atrium --> receives unoxygenated blood from the heart
- right ventricle --> pumps blood into the lungs
- left atrium --> receives oxygenated blood from the lungs
- left ventricle --> largest and strongest chamber, pumps the oxygenated blood into the systemic circulation of the body
What is the function of the circulatory system?
increasing the flow of blood to meet energy demands during exercise, regulate body temperature and aid the body's immune system by transporting white blood cells and antibodies to the areas under attack by disease
What are the effects of aging on the circulatory system?
- movement of blood through the body slows down
- heart weakens
- blood vessels harden and lose their ability to stretch
What is the function of the arteries ? what's the different with the pulmonary artery?
artery --> carries oxygenated blood away from the heart
pulmonary artery --> carries blood to the lungs
What are the difference between arteries and veins?
- all arteries carry blood away from the heart
- all veins carry blood back to the heart
- all arteries (except pulmonary artery) carry oxygenated blood
- all veins (except the 4 pulmonary veins) carry deoxygenated blood
What is MI?
MI --> myocardial infraction - obstruction of a blood vessel in the heart muscle results in death of heart tissue due to lack of oxygen
What is congestive heart failure?
the heart is unable to pump enough blood, and their fluid builds up in the lungs
What is CVA?
CVA --> cerebrovascular accident - a blockage in or rupturing of arteries in the brain causes a stroke (death of brain tissue)
What is peripheral vascular disease?
condition resulting from restricted or poor functioning of the valves in the veins
The circulatory and respiratory systems are tightly linked. The respiratory system delivers oxygen from the air to the blood to be transported through the circulatory system. The circulatory system delivers carbon dioxide from the body to the lungs, where the respiratory system removes it from the body. Thus, neither system can complete its work without the other
RESPIRATORY CARE AFTER SURGERY
- patient must be encouraged to breathe deeply in order to keep all the air sacs open and inflated
- N.A. is asked to encourage patient to cough, especially if there is inflammation of the lungs tissue
- by doctor's order, Pulmonary Medicine Department (respiratory therapy) will institue a treatment that will encourage the patient to breath deeply and cough
- one way to make patient more comfortable is to place a pillos over the patient's abdomen and instruct the patient to hold it firmly against the abdomen when he coughs
- patient is usually instructed to breath in and out slowly and deeply twice
RESPIRATORY SYSTEM AND THE NORMAL AGING PROCESS
- the elasticity of the lung tissue can decrease
- the airways can become obstructed due to repeated infections or irritants, such as smoking or air pollution
How is TB spread? What is latent TB?
Tiny droplets containing the TB bacteria are easily transmitted from one person to another through the air by coughing, sneezing, or speaking.
Laten TB - persons who are indected but do not have the TB disease cannot spread the infection to other people.
What is COPD?
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, which refers to a group of disorders, such as bronchitis , asthma, and emphysema
INDICATIONS A PATIENT MAY REQUIRE SUPPLEMENT OXYGEN. (consider these questions and report if you observe any to be occuring)
- Are the patient's respiration labored?
- Has the respiration rate increased?
- Does the patient report feeling short of breath?
- Is the patient using accessory muscles (neck or intercostal muscles) to assist with ventilation?
- Is the patient wheezing?
- Are there signs of cyanosis- blusih nail beds or blusih hue- to the lips or mucous membranes?
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