The Circulatory and Respiratory Systems and Related Care

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The Circulatory and Respiratory Systems and Related Care
2011-03-05 20:23:13
Circulatory Respiratory Systems

Nurs 16. Ch 18
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  1. What is Angina Pectoris?
    Heart pain that results from insufficient blood flow and oxygen to the heart muscle.
  2. What is arteriosclerosis?
    the walls of the arteries become thicker with fatty deposits and less elastic than they should be for the normal regulation of blood flow and blood pressure
  3. What is the function of the red blood cells (rbc) and the white blood cells (wbc)?
    red blood cells --> carry oxygen

    white blood cells --> fight infection
  4. What is the blood pressure (BP) a measure of?
    measurement of the heart contracting and relaxing
  5. What happens in systoli and diastoli?
    systolic --> when the heart contracts to pump deoxygenated blood to the lungs and oxygenated blood to the body

    diatolic --> when the heart is at rest
  6. How many chambers are in the heart, and what do the chambers do?
    four chambers

    • right atrium --> receives unoxygenated blood from the heart
    • right ventricle --> pumps blood into the lungs

    • left atrium --> receives oxygenated blood from the lungs
    • left ventricle --> largest and strongest chamber, pumps the oxygenated blood into the systemic circulation of the body
  7. What is the function of the circulatory system?
    increasing the flow of blood to meet energy demands during exercise, regulate body temperature and aid the body's immune system by transporting white blood cells and antibodies to the areas under attack by disease
  8. What are the effects of aging on the circulatory system?
    • movement of blood through the body slows down
    • heart weakens
    • blood vessels harden and lose their ability to stretch
  9. What is the function of the arteries ? what's the different with the pulmonary artery?
    artery --> carries oxygenated blood away from the heart

    pulmonary artery --> carries blood to the lungs
  10. What are the difference between arteries and veins?
    • all arteries carry blood away from the heart
    • all veins carry blood back to the heart
    • all arteries (except pulmonary artery) carry oxygenated blood
    • all veins (except the 4 pulmonary veins) carry deoxygenated blood
  11. What is MI?
    MI --> myocardial infraction - obstruction of a blood vessel in the heart muscle results in death of heart tissue due to lack of oxygen
  12. What is congestive heart failure?
    the heart is unable to pump enough blood, and their fluid builds up in the lungs
  13. What is CVA?
    CVA --> cerebrovascular accident - a blockage in or rupturing of arteries in the brain causes a stroke (death of brain tissue)
  14. What is peripheral vascular disease?
    condition resulting from restricted or poor functioning of the valves in the veins
  15. KEY IDEA
    The circulatory and respiratory systems are tightly linked. The respiratory system delivers oxygen from the air to the blood to be transported through the circulatory system. The circulatory system delivers carbon dioxide from the body to the lungs, where the respiratory system removes it from the body. Thus, neither system can complete its work without the other
    • patient must be encouraged to breathe deeply in order to keep all the air sacs open and inflated
    • N.A. is asked to encourage patient to cough, especially if there is inflammation of the lungs tissue
    • by doctor's order, Pulmonary Medicine Department (respiratory therapy) will institue a treatment that will encourage the patient to breath deeply and cough
    • one way to make patient more comfortable is to place a pillos over the patient's abdomen and instruct the patient to hold it firmly against the abdomen when he coughs
    • patient is usually instructed to breath in and out slowly and deeply twice
    • the elasticity of the lung tissue can decrease
    • the airways can become obstructed due to repeated infections or irritants, such as smoking or air pollution
  18. How is TB spread? What is latent TB?
    Tiny droplets containing the TB bacteria are easily transmitted from one person to another through the air by coughing, sneezing, or speaking.

    Laten TB - persons who are indected but do not have the TB disease cannot spread the infection to other people.
  19. What is COPD?
    chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, which refers to a group of disorders, such as bronchitis , asthma, and emphysema
  20. INDICATIONS A PATIENT MAY REQUIRE SUPPLEMENT OXYGEN. (consider these questions and report if you observe any to be occuring)
    • Are the patient's respiration labored?
    • Has the respiration rate increased?
    • Does the patient report feeling short of breath?
    • Is the patient using accessory muscles (neck or intercostal muscles) to assist with ventilation?
    • Is the patient wheezing?
    • Are there signs of cyanosis- blusih nail beds or blusih hue- to the lips or mucous membranes?