BIO230 Fungi

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jswareham
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70964
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BIO230 Fungi
Updated:
2011-03-05 23:14:16
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fungi yeast mold
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CCBC BIO230 Dr. Jeffrey test 1 material. covers fungi, yeast, and molds.
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  1. Fungi

    1. Eukaryotic or Prokaryotic?
    2. Cell strucures
    3. Have a nucleus?
    4. # of chromosomes?
    5. Cell walls?
    6. Undergo mitosis?
  2. 1. Eukaryotic
    • 2. Lots of cell structures.
    • 3. Have a nucleus.
    • 4. Many chromosomes.
    • 5. They have cell walls made of starch/cellulose. They have no PG in cell walls.
    • 6. They undergo mitosis.
  3. Fungi; Yeasts

    1. Uni- or multi- cellular?
    2. Shape and size?
    3. Reproduction
    • 1. Usually unicellular.
    • 2. Spherical or oval in shape, 3-7μm
    • 3. Reproduce asexually by budding, not binary fission.
  4. Fungi; Yeasts

    4 types of yeasts?
    • -Saccharomyces
    • -Candida albicans (aka Monila albicans)
    • -Cryptococcus neoformans
    • -Pneumocystis jiraveci (aka Pneumocystis carinii)
  5. Fungi; Yeasts; Saccharomyces

    What is Saccharomyces?
    baker's or brewer's yeast, non-pathogenic
  6. Fungi; Yeasts; Candida

    Characteristics of Candida
    • -Most common pathogenic yeast
    • -Dimorphic yeast
    • 1. Appears as a typical yeast at 37oC (body temp)
    • 2. Appears like a mold at cooler temps.
    • a. Chains of cells called psuedohyphae
    • b. Clusters of reproductive spores called blastospores
    • c. Large terminal survival spores called Chlamydospores
  7. Fungi; Yeasts; Candida

    Infections are referred to as candidiasis. 4 types of Candida infections?
    • -Vaginitis
    • -Thrush (oral Candidiasis)
    • -Dermatitis
    • -Systemic Candida (inside body)
  8. Fungi; Yeasts; Candida; Infections

    Characteristics of Vaginitis yeast infections?
    • -Results in a creamy white discharge
    • -Some discomfort
    • -Maybe bleeding
  9. Fungi; Yeasts; Candida; Infections

    Characteristics of Thrush yeast infections?
    • -Infection of mouth, tongue, and gums
    • -Common in babies, AIDS patients, and cancer patients undergoing radiation treatments.
    • -Results in white coating on tongue gums, throat.
    • -Bleeding.
  10. Fungi; Yeasts; Candida; Infections

    Characteristics of Dermatitis yeast infections?
    • -Skin rash, red, peeling.
    • -Occurs on moist skin.
  11. Fungi; Yeasts; Candida; Infections

    Characteristics of Systemic Candida yeast infections?
    • -Found in immunosuppressed people
    • -Causes, Pneumonia, Meningitis, Encephalitis
  12. Fungi; Yeasts; Candida

    2 drugs to treat Candida?
    • -Nystatin
    • -Ketoconazole; Chlortrimazole, Lotramin
  13. Fungi; Yeasts; Cryptococcus neoformans - capsulated yeast

    Characteristics of Cryptococcus neoformans?

    1. Where is it found?
    2. Human injestion?
    3. Causes and syptoms of infection?
    Causes cryptococcosis

    • 1. Found in soils containing pigeon droppings.
    • 2. Humans inhale yeast in soil particles.
    • 3. Causes respiratory infection, Cough, fever, congestion, fatigue
    • 4. If it is chronic. Pneumonia, scarring of lungs, show as a TB-like illness.
  14. Fungi; Yeasts; Cryptococcus neoformans


    What is Cryptococcus neoformans treated with?
    Amphoterian B
  15. Fungi; Yeasts; Pneumocystis jiraveci

    What is the major infections caused by Pneumocystis jiraveci?
    • -Causes sever pneumonia in AIDS patients.
    • -#1 cause of death of AIDS patients.
  16. Fungi; Yeasts; Pneumocystis jiraveci

    What is Pneumocystis jiraveci treated with?
    Treated with flagyl (anti-protozoa drug)
  17. Fungi, Molds

    1. Uni- or multi- cellular?
    Usually multicellular
  18. Fungi, Molds

    Produce branches and chains of cells called?
    Hyphae
  19. Fungi, Molds

    2 types of hyphae and their functions.
    • -Vegetative hyphae; grows along a surface
    • 1. Anchor mold to surface
    • 2. Obtain nutrients.

    -Aerial hyphae contain reproductive spores.
  20. Fungi, Molds

    3 Common non-pathogenic molds found in the Eastern US.
    • -Aspergillus
    • -Penicillium
    • -Rhizopus
  21. Fungi, Molds; Aspergillus

    What are the 4 structures of Aspergillus mold?
    • 1. White vegetative hyphae
    • 2. Aerial hyphae called conidiophore
    • 3. Swollen vesicle at end of conidiophore called conidium
    • 4. Black spores layered on vesicles called conidiospores.
  22. Fungi, Molds; Aspergillus

    Characteristics of Aspergillus?
    • Is non-pathogenic although some people are allergic to the spores.
    • Many exposures to certain species of Aspergillus growing on peanuts & peanut butter may cause Aspergillus to produce a toxin called aflatoxin.
    • -Aflatoxin is known to cause liver cancer.
  23. Fungi, Molds; Penicillium

    What are the 4 structures of Penicillium mold?
    • 1. White vegetative hyphae
    • 2. Aerial hyphae called conidiophore
    • 3. Multiple branches atop of conidiophore called sterigmata.
    • 4. Green/Blue/Black spores layered stacked on sterigmata called conidiospores.

  24. Fungi, Molds; Penicillium

    Characteristics of Penicillium?
    • Known as bread mold.
    • Non-pathogenic although some people are allergic.
    • Very beneficial mold
    • -Produces antibiotic called Penicillin
    • -And other food products (cheese)
  25. Fungi, Molds; Rhizopus

    What are the 4 structures of Rhizopus mold?
    • 1. White/Silver vegetative hyphae
    • 2. Aerial hyphae called sporangiophore
    • 3. Sporangiophore is topped by a sac called the sporangium
    • 4. The sporangium is filled with black spores called sporangiospores.

  26. Fungi, Molds

    2 types of pathogenic molds.
    • Dermatophyte Molds
    • Systemic Dimorphic Molds
  27. Fungi, Molds; Dermatophyte Molds

    3 types of infection areas of Dermatophyte Molds.
    • On skin it causes a red, raised, circular, itchy rash (ring worm, aka Tinea)
    • On hair it causes hair loss
    • Under nail causes thickening, discoloration, and loss of nail.
    • (mold need keratin to grow)
  28. Fungi, Molds; Dermatophyte Molds

    Types of dermatophyte infections.
    • Tinea capitis - scalp
    • Tinea barbae - face (shaving)
    • Tinea corpis - ring worm
    • Tinea inguinale (Tinea cruris) - groin, jock itch
    • Tinea pedis - feet (athlete's foot)
  29. Fungi, Molds; Dermatophyte Molds

    3 types of Dermatophyte Molds
    • Microsporum
    • Trichophyton
    • Epidermophyton
  30. Fungi, Molds; Dermatophyte Molds

    Structure of Dermatophyte Molds
    • Tan/Brown vegetative hyphae.
    • No conidiophore
    • 3 types of spore structures, Microconidia, Macroconidia, Spindle Macroconidia
  31. Fungi, Molds; Dermatophyte Molds

    Treatment of Dermatophyte Molds
    • Griseofulvin - Grisactin, Tinactin
    • Ketoconazole - Lotramin
  32. Fungi, Molds; Systemic Dimorphic Molds

    What are the dimorphic forms?
    • Inside the body mold appears yeast-like
    • Outside the body it appears mold-like
  33. Fungi, Molds; Systemic Dimorphic Molds

    Example of a Systemic Dimorphic Mold?
    Histoplasma capsulatum
  34. Fungi, Molds; Systemic Dimorphic Molds; Histoplasma capsulatum

    2 structures of Histoplasma capsulatum?
    • 1. White vegetative hyphae
    • 2. Tuberculate macroconidia (spores)


  35. Fungi, Molds; Systemic Dimorphic Molds; Histoplasma capsulatum

    Characteristics of Histoplasma capsulatum?
    • Found in soils in Eastern US
    • Need specific nutrients in soil from bird or bat droppings
    • -Crows, blackbirds, starlings, chickens, ravens,
    • Spores can be inhaled and cause tuberculosis-like symptoms, but has a different treatment than TB
  36. Fungi, Molds; Systemic Dimorphic Molds; Histoplasma capsulatum

    Treatment of Histoplasma capsulatum?
    Treated with Amphoterian B

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