Anatomy Forelimb, II
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Bnoes of the shoulder joint:
- Glenoid Cavity of Scapula
- Head of the humerus
95% of lameness problems occur ____
below the carpus
Shoulder Joint Lacks:
What allows the shoulder joint to glide?
The head of the humerus is larger than the glenoid cavity
Ligaments of the shulder?
What stabilizes the shoulder?
- Tendons of the...
- Teres Minor
- Bicep Brachii
Shoulder Joint is normally flexed at ___
Flexion of joint provides...
Bones of the Cubitol Joint:
- Condyle of Distal Humerus
- Fovea Capitis of Radius
- Trochlear Notch of the Ulna
Classification of Cubital/Elbow Joint:
- Hinge (gingylmus)
Ligaments of the Cubital Joint
- Medial and Lateral Collateral
- (Medial is branched)
Where does the medial collateral lig, of the cubital joint, extend to?
- Distal to interosseus space of the radius= Long Branch
- Medial Tuberosity of the radius= Short Branch
Where are injections given within the cubital joint?
Cr and Ca to the lateral collateral Lig
The Carpal Joint is classified as
- Hinge (ginglymus)
Carpal Joint VS Tarsal Joint
Carpal joint is simpler
Where is the Joint Capsule of the Carpus thickened?
Dorsal and Palmar Sides
What forms the carpal canal?
Palmar surface of the Carpal Joint Capsule
Where does the Carpal Joint Capsule extend?
Into the Acessory Lig of the DDF
Synovial Sacs of the Carpus: *
- Middle Carpal
Which of the carpal synovial sacs communicate? *
- Middle Carpal Sac and
- Carpometacarpal Sac
Which of the Carpal Synovial Sacs is the largest? *
Ligaments of the Carpus:
- Medial & Lateral Collateral
- Accessory Carpal Ligs
- Mult Short Ligs
What provides stabilization to the Carpal Joint?
Accessory Carpal Bone Ligaments
How does the carpus aid in concussion absorption?
Movements of the carpus? *
Flexion and Extension
The carpus can ___ up to 90 degrees *
Most of the movement of the carpal joint, resides between...
- Antebrachial and
- Middle Carpal Joints
What inhibits movement within the carpometacarpal Joint?
Within the Carpal joint, there is little *
Adduction and Abduction
What predisposes horses to injury of their carpal joint? *
At flexion, the two proximal joints open
Upon flexion the carpus, the ____ & ____ become available for easy injections *
- Radiocarpal Sac
- Middle Carpal Sac
1st and 2nd joints to be injured in the forelimb: *
- 1st: Fetlock Joint
- 2nd: Coffin Joint
Most Stressed Joint:
The fetlock Joint
The fetlock is classified as
Bones of the Fetlock Joint:
- Distal end of the metatarsal/cannon bone
- Phalanx end of the 1st phalanx
- Proximal Sesamoid
Fracture of ____ = "Cry First" *
Proximal Sesamoid Bone
Which bones frequently fracture? *
- Proximal Sesamoid
- Cannon (metacarpal)
- Carpal Bones
The proximal Sesamoid has no direct articulation with... *
the proximal phalanx
Distention of the Fetlock Joint Capsule => *
- Articular Windgalls
- Wind Puffs
Where is the fetlock joint capsules injected?
On the projection btw. the cannon bone and interosseus m, on the palmer side
The Fetlock Joint Capsule is thick on the ____ side *
Changes of the Interosseus with age: *
- Foal= little muscle
- Adult= entirely tendinous
The interosseus m inserts on the _____ and detaches an _____ to the_____ *
- abaxial surface of prox sesamoid bones
- oblique, dorsal branch (extensor slips)
- common digital extensor tendon
Functions of the sesamoidean ligaments:
- Support Fetlock
- Prevent hyper-dorsal extension (when foot hits ground)
- Limit Flexion by the DDF (when limb on ground and joint is extended)
Ligaments of the distal sesamoid:
- Straight Sesamoidean Lig
- Oblique Sesamoidean Lig
- Deep/Cruciate Sesamoidean Lig
- Short Sesamoidean Lig
What prevents buckling forward of the pastern?
- Oblique Sesamoidean Lig
- SDF tendon
What Supports the fetlock Joint?
- Distal Sesamoidean Lig
Of the Fetlock Collateral Ligaments, which are stronger
The Deep layers of both the lateral and medial collateral Lig
Where is the injection site of the fetlock?
Between cannon and interosseus
Damage to ____ => fetlock sinks
Damage to ____ => fetlock SLIGHTLY sinks, not grounded
Damage to ____ => Complete grounding/collapse of the fetlock
Cahanges of the coffin bone with age
Hyaline Cartilage -> Fibrocartilage in adult
How does the elbow become fixed?
Weight, acting through the radius, distalward
In the hindlimb, what makes up for a lack of accessory ligaments?
Attachment of the SDF to point of the hock
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