21 musculoskeletal and Antiinflammatory

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Author:
carolyn
ID:
70990
Filename:
21 musculoskeletal and Antiinflammatory
Updated:
2011-03-06 06:57:28
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pharmacology
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musculoskeletal and antiinflammatory drugs
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  1. two broad categories of drugs used to treat disorders of the musculoskeletal system
    • muscle relaxants
    • non-steroidal anti inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS)
  2. medication used to treat some musculoskeletal disorders associated with pain, spasm, abnormal contraction or impaired mobility
    muscle relaxant
  3. true or false

    muscle relaxants are given on a long term basis
    false

    they are given on a short term basis until the pain subsides
  4. muscle relaxant drugs affect the _______ and ______ with no direct effect on skeletal muscle
    spinal cord and brain
  5. muscle relaxants produce a ______ effect promoting rest and relaxation
    sedative
  6. two drugs used to treat acute, painful musculoskeletal conditions include:
    • diazepam (valium)
    • methacarbomal (robaxin)
  7. a different type of muscle relaxant that causes a direct effect on skeletal muscles and manages spasticity from upper motor neuron disorders
    dantrolene
  8. two upper motor neuron disorders
    • cerebral palsy
    • multiple sclerosis
  9. this relaxant acts on the muscle itself and is not intended for use if caused by trauma
    dantrolene
  10. neuromuscular blocking agents are used for what?
    surgical, endoscopic, or orthopedic procedures
  11. succinylcholine and rocuronium (zemuron) are what types of muscle relaxants
    NMBA's (neuromuscular blocking agents)
  12. the major muscle of ventilation is the _____
    diaphragm
  13. NMBA's are potentially very dangerous and can result in respiratory arrest because of the potential to _________ the diaphragm
    paralyze
  14. who can administer NMBA's?
    anesthesiologists or specially trained people
  15. an antidote for NMBA's is:
    neostigmine (prostigmine)
  16. _______ can also be used to treat myasthenia gravis
    prostigmin
  17. skeletal muscle relaxant side effects
    • slurred speech
    • blurred vision
    • ataxia (defective muscular coordination)
    • weakness, drowsiness, dizziness, dry mouth
    • hypersensitivity
    • respiratory depression
  18. the appropriate care for musculoskeletal injuries (acronym)
    • RICE
    • (rest, ice, compression, elevation)
  19. ______ drugs are used to treat disorders in which the musculoskeletal system is not functioning properly due to inflammation
    anti-inflammatory
  20. examples of conditions that require anti-inflammatory drugs
    • arthritis
    • bursitis
    • spondylitis
    • gout
    • muscle strains and sprains
  21. can NSAIDS be given for lengthy time periods?
    yes
  22. the oldest drug in the NSAID category
    Salicylates (aspirin)
  23. anti inflammatory drugs that do not inhibit clotting and cause fewer gastric problems and less GI bleeding than other NSAIDS
    COX-2 inhibitor
  24. an example of an NSAID that inhibits COX-2 and has the potential to cause fewer gastric problems and pose less risk of GI bleeding
    celebrex
  25. these are side effects of ________

    GI ulceration and bleeding
    Epigastric pain
    GERD
    myocardial infarction
    fluid retention
    hematuria
    rash
    NSAIDS
  26. these are contraindications with
    • asthma
    • kidney disease
    • liver dyfunction
    • children with viral infections
    • cardiovascular disorders
  27. NSAIDS should be given with what to reduce GI side effects
    meals or milk
  28. a metabolic disorder characterized by accumulation of uric acid crystals in various joints, especially the big toe, ankle, knee, and elbow with resultant pain and swelling
    gout
  29. side of effects of gout meds
    • blood disorders
    • rash
    • GI upset
    • diarrhea
  30. what should be encouraged to facilitate excretion of uric acid crystals?
    large fluid intake
  31. ______ is a specific drug that is used to relieve inflammation in acute gouty arthiritis
    colchicine
  32. a disease characterized by low bone mass and deterioration of bone tissue, leading to bone fragility and increased susceptibility to fracture, especially to the hip, spine, and wrist
    osteoporosis
  33. osteoporosis effects the older population but primarily who?
    postmenopausal women
  34. osteoporosis therapy include:
    calcium and vitamin D supplementation and several prescription meds
  35. bone loss occurs with the first ___ years after the onset of menopause
    5
  36. nonhormonal agents that act directly to inhibit bone reabsorption, thereby increasing bone mineral density at the spine and hip as well as decreasing the incidence of first and future fractures
    bisphosphonates
  37. first line therapy bisphosphonates approved for prevention and treatment of osteoporosis (3)
    • alendronate (fosamax)
    • ibandronate (boniva)
    • risedronate (actonel)
  38. a chronic disorder characterized by fractures, skeletal abnormalities, and significant bone pain
    paget's disease
  39. bisphosphonate side effects
    • GI distress (nausea, dyspepsia, esophagitis)
    • abdominal and chest pain
  40. these are contraindications for ______

    hypocalcemia
    renal failure
    inability to sit upright for 30-60 mins
    bisphosphonates
  41. should bisphosphonates be taken after the first meal?
    NO.

    before, for the excretion and absorption of meds

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