Electrolyte imbalances

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BrigittaLis
ID:
71010
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Electrolyte imbalances
Updated:
2011-03-06 10:46:06
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electrolyte imbalances
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electrolyte imbalances
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  1. Sodium normal range
    135-145
  2. Hypernatremia causes
    • Excess salt intake
    • Excess aldosterone
    • Diabetes insipidus
    • Water deprivation
  3. Hyponatremia causes
    • GI loss
    • Renal loss
    • Skin loss
    • SIADH – Don’t go into memorizing mechanism of this.
    • Most of these are seen in a hospital setting.Esp if these fluids aren’t being replaced with IV fluid
  4. Hypernatremia S&S
    • Extreme thirst
    • Dry flushed skin
    • Fever
    • Agitation
    • Convulsions
    • NA>145
    • Osmolality 300mOsm/kg (solute concentration in urine is going to be higher)
    • Urine SG 1.030
  5. Hyponatremia S&S
    • Personality changes
    • Abdominal cramping
    • Nausea/Vomit
    • Tachycardia
    • Convulsions
    • Coma
  6. Potassium normal levels
    3.0-5.0
  7. Causes of hyperkalemia
    • Renal failure – kidneys aren’t filtering
    • Fluid volume deficit – severely dehydrated, too much extracellular potassium. Cells are unlocked.
    • Cellular damage (Burns) cells are unlocked and potassium going out of cells
    • Use of potassium sparing diuretics
  8. Hypokalemia
    • Use of potassium wasting diuretics
    • Extreme sweating
    • Excessive use of potassium free IV solutions, pts probably need potassium replacement.
  9. Hyperkalemia
    • Anxiety
    • Dysrhthmias (peak T waves)
    • Weakness
    • Abdominal Cramps
    • K>5 (or so)
    • ECG abnormalities
    • Cardiac Arrest
  10. Hypokalemia S&S
    • Weakness, fatigue
    • ECG changes (depressed or flattened T wave)
    • Decreased deep tendon reflexes
    • Irregular pulse
    • K<3.5 or so
  11. Calcium normal levels
    8.5-10.5, 4.5-5.5
  12. Hypercalcemia causes
    • Hyperparathyroidism (increase in parathyroid activity)
    • Prolonged immobilization
    • Thiazide diuretics (potassium sparing)
  13. Hypocalcemia causes
    • Vitamin D deficiency
    • Chronic renal failure
    • Pancreatitis
    • Hypoparathyroidism
  14. Hypercalcemia S&S
    • Anorexia
    • N/V
    • Flank pain
    • Decreased LOC
    • Cardiac Arrest
  15. Hypocalcemia S&S
    • Numbness
    • Hyperactive reflexes
    • Positive Trousseau’s sign (ticking in face )
    • Positive Chvostek’s sign (put blood pressure cuff on, will make vessels become hypoic and hand will twitch)
  16. Magnesium normal levels
    1.5-2.5
  17. Hypermagnesia causes
    • Renal failure
    • Excess ingestion of Mg
  18. Hypomagnesia causes
    • Malnutrition
    • ETOH ecessive alcohol intake
    • Inadequate absorption or loss: diarrhea, vomiting, NG drainage
  19. Hypermagnesia S&S
    • Hypoactive deep tendon reflexes
    • Decreased depth or respirations
    • Hypotensions
    • Mg>2.5
  20. Hypomagnesia S&S
    Hypoactive deep tendon reflexes Decreased depth or respirations Hypotensions —Mg>2.5
  21. Hypomagnesia S&S
    • Tremors
    • Hyperactive deep tendon reflexes
    • Confusion
    • Hypertension
  22. FVE causes
    • CHF
    • Renal failure
    • Cirrhosis
    • Excess sodium intake
  23. FVD causes
    • GI losses
    • Fever (gi and fever more of an effect on elderly and very young)
    • Decreased oral intake
    • Use of diuretics
  24. FVE S&S
    • Rapid weight gain
    • Neck vein distention
    • Crackles
    • Hypertension
  25. FVD S&S
    • Tachycardia
    • Poor skin turgor
    • Flat neck veins
    • Lethargy
    • Oliguria
  26. Resp Acidosis causes
    • Hypoventilation Resulting from Primary Resp. Problems
    • Atelectasis
    • Pneumonia
    • Airway Obstruction
    • Chest wall injury
    • COPD
  27. Resp alkalosis causes
    • Hyperventilation
    • Anxiety
    • Fever, excerise
    • Salicylate overdose
  28. Metabolic acidosis causes
    • Starvation
    • Diabetic Ketoacidosis
    • Renal failure
    • Use of drugs
  29. Metabolic alkalosis causes
    • Excessive vomiting
    • Prolonged suctioning

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