Respiratory Disorders

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Respiratory Disorders
2011-03-06 14:14:18
Patho Test Two

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  1. Inspiration
    • Requires muscel activity- Diaphragm and external intercostals
    • Normal Relaxed breathing
  2. Expiration
    • Relaxation phase, should be passive
    • If forced will use abdominals & internal intercostals
    • Coughing is done during the expiration phase and reuires forced expiration
  3. Define Tidal Volume
    • Amount of air entering lungs with each normal breath
    • 500ml
  4. Define Residual Volume
    • Amount of air remaining in the lungsafter forced expiration
    • 1200mL
  5. Define Inspiratory Reserve
    • Maximal volume of air inspired in excess of normal tidal volume
    • 3000mL
  6. Define Expiratory Reserve
    • Maximal volume or air expired following a passive expiration
    • 1200mL
  7. Vital Capacity
    • maxiaml amount of air expired following a maximal inspiration
    • 4600mL
  8. Total Lung Capacity
    • Total volume or air in the lungs after maximal inspiration
    • 6000mL
  9. Chemial Factors affecting repiration
    What drives breathing
    • Centeral chempreceptors in the medulla repsond to:
    • slight elevation in PCO2 and Decreased cerebrospinal fluid pH
    • Peripheral Chemorecptor in the heart are sensitve to decrease O2 levesl in arterial blood as well as low pH
  10. Factors that affect gas exchange
    • accumulation of fluid in alveoli or interstital fluid
    • adequate surface area for gas exchange to occur
    • Need a balance of ventilation and perfusion
  11. Manifestations of poor gas exchange
    • Inadequate O2 in circulation
    • Decreased O2 for cell meatbolism
  12. Diagnostic Test for Respiratory
    • Pulmonary Volumes
    • Arterial blood gases
    • Oximeters
    • Exercise testing
    • Radiography
    • Bronchoscopy
    • Culture and sensitivity tests
  13. Sputum
    • Yellow green thick- bacteria
    • Rusty Dark - pneumococcal pneumonia
    • Large amounts, purulent sputum - Brocnchiectasis
    • Thick tenacious - cystic fibrosis
    • Blood Tinged - blood vessels rupture Tb Tumor
    • Hemoptysis - blood tinged frothy sputum- pulmonary edema
  14. Define Eupnea
    • Normal Rate and rhythm of breathing
    • 10-18 per min
  15. Define Kussmaul Respirations
    Deep Rapid
  16. Define Cheyne Stokes
    • apnea, the increasing then decreasing depth of respiration
    • happens with head injury
  17. Define Wheezing
    whistling sound
  18. Define Striodr
    High pitched crowing wound
  19. Define Dyspnea
    Difficult breathing
  20. Define Orthopnea
    Difficult breating in supine
  21. Define Paroxysmal Nocturnal dyspnea
    sudden acute dyspnea and left side CHF
  22. Define Rales
    • serous secretions
    • light bubbly sounds
  23. Define Thonchi
    • Thicker secretions
    • deeper harsher sounds
  24. Pleural pain
    • Inflammation or infection
    • Pain increases with inspiration or coughing
  25. Common Treatment Measures
    • Avoid allergens
    • Humidify air - thinner secretions
    • Exercise
    • Breathing and coughing
    • Cheast PT
    • Oxygen
    • Medications
    • Surgery
  26. Define Infectious Rhinitis
    • The common cold
    • Caused by virus - can go on the develop secondary bacterial infection
    • Treated according to symptoms
    • Upper Respiratory Tract infection
  27. Define Sinusitis
    • Bacterial infection in the upper tract
    • Exudate builds up causes pain
    • Treated for pain, decongestant, antibodies
  28. Croup
    • Viral illness common in kids 1-2
    • larynx and glottis are swollen inflamed
    • S&S: hoarse barking cough inpiratory stridor resless
    • Treatment: cold moisturized air
  29. Influenza
    • May affect both upper and lower respiratory tract
    • S&S: sudden acute onset with fever fatigue and aching pains
    • may be complicated by a secondary bacterial infection
    • Treatment: anit-viratl meds in first 48 hours
  30. RSV
    • Bronchiolitis
    • common in kids age 2-12months VERY CONTAGIOUS
    • Causes inflammtion necrosis of bronchioles, increases secrestions, reflexive bronchospams, wheezing, dyspnea
  31. General Pneumonia facts
    • classified by causative agent or lung area affects pathologial change or epideiologic data
    • Process:
    • Inflammation cause exudate of fluid in the lungs
    • Fluid & Exudate gets into lungs and blocks gas exchange at alveoli level
    • Fluid contains fibrin which overtime cause lung tissue to soldify
  32. Three Types of pneumonia
    • Lobar pneumonia
    • Bronchopeumonia
    • Primary Atypical
  33. Lobar Pneumonia
    • Caused by streptococcus pneumonia
    • Localized to one or more lobes
    • Sudden onset
    • Signs: high fever chills ratles orgessing to no breath sounds productive cough RUSTY SPUTUM
    • treatment: antibacterial, supportive care
  34. Bronchopneumonia
    • Diffuse pattern of infactions in both lungs more ofetn in the lower lobes
    • Multiple bacteria
    • Insidious onset
    • Signs: mild fever, productive cough YELLOW GREEN SPUTUM, dyspnea
  35. Primary Atypial Pneumonia
    • Caused by Mycoplasma pneumonis bacterium or an influenza virus
    • Scattered small patch involves interstitial inflammtion
    • Signs:
    • variable fever headache, aching mucles non-productive baking cough milder more slef limiting
    • Treatment: Erythopyocin or tetracycline
  36. SARS
    • Severe acute respirtory syndrome
    • Coause by a coranacirus
    • transmitted by repiratory droples during close contact
    • S&S:
    • 1st stage: fever, HA, myalgia, chills, anorexia, and frequend diarrhea last 3-7 days
    • Next: dry cough and marked dyspnea
    • Chest X-ray spreading patchy area of interstitial congestions
    • Mechanical Ventilation may be need in progesses to severe sometimes fatal respiratory disease
  37. TB
    • Countaious lung infection mycobacterium tuberculosis
    • causes: exposure to infected person
    • S&S: low grade fever, nigh sweats, cough, anorexia, fatigue
    • Diagnosis: skin test chest xray, seutum analysis
    • Treatment: meds for 3-12 months
  38. Primary and Secondary TB infection
    • Primary: if pt has adequate resistance bacilli become alled off form a tubercle
    • Pt is infected but NO ACTIVE DISEASE
    • Secondary: active form bacillus is not alled off
    • destruction of lung tissue, erosion of bronchi blood vessels ACTIVE DIESEASE