Card Set Information

2011-03-06 19:20:52

antibacterial drugs pg 115-121
Show Answers:

  1. t/f antibiotics are given before a tooth is worked on to get rid of the infection
    FALSE! do treatment and then if infection doesn't reslove give antibiotics
  2. Antibiotics are used in dentistry to treat ______ infection
  3. how long must you premed for a joint replacement?
    2 years
  4. as a dental hygienist what is our role in antibacterial therapy? 4
    • why drug is used
    • follow up on pt compliance
    • adverse effects
    • understand actions
  5. what is it called when the normal flor becomes pathogenic
    autogenous infection
  6. what is it called when there is a proliferation of transient microoganisms?
    cross infection
  7. t/f autogenous infections occur when there is a proliferation of transient microorganisms
    FALSE! Autogenious infections is when the normal flor becomes pathogenic (the other is a cross infection)
  8. the common thread in pharmacologic strategies is to target differences between _______, (bacterial) and _____ (host or body) cells.
    • prokaryotic
    • eukaryotic
  9. t/f eukaryotic cells are bacterial cells
    FALSE! Host or Body cells eUkaryotic cells its all U!
  10. are prokaryotic cells bacterial or host cells?
  11. what is a unique target for antibacterial thearpy? why doesn't this effect the host cells?
    • bacterial cell wall
    • because human cells don't have cell walls
  12. what are the three rules for antibacterial drug selection
    • Remove infectious debris and allow host immune response to be initiated
    • select agent to which infecting organism is susceptible
    • select agent that is the most narrow spectrum
  13. by the time antibacterial agnets are indicated what is seen in the host? (signs for giving antibiotics)
    • fever
    • spreading infection
    • lymphadenopathy
  14. t/f gram - bacilli predominate during infection
  15. what is described: reduction of number of normal flora, broad spectrum cause opportunistic infection, non susceptible microbes flourish
  16. t/f you want to pick the most broad spectrum drug to fight infection
    FALSE! narrow spectrum
  17. t/f bactericidal drugs slow the growth of bacteria
    FALSE! they kill bacteria, bacteriCIDAL like suiCIDAL=death
  18. is it bacyericidal or bacteriostatic if it slows the growth of bacteria
  19. what is it called when larger amounts of antibiotic are given to get a higher blood level all at once
    loading dose
  20. t/f oral infections are all gram positive
    FALSE poly microbial (caused by gram + and gram -)
  21. is a granuloma chronic or acute
    CHRONIC (anything with bone being eaten is chronic)
  22. a chonic infection is more _____ for the anaerobes
  23. with a chronic infection bacterial species ____ and selective ______ survive
    • deline
    • bacteria
  24. with a chronic infection the microbiology is more ____ than acute
  25. t/f chronic infections are poorly localized
    FALSE! chronic infections are localized
  26. successfull treatment of an infection is based on the debridement and the _______ immune system
  27. if you have an immunocompromised pt what is used along with the debridement to treat infection?
  28. if the ______ function is suppressed it can adversely affect the therapeutic outcome, they can be adversely affect by a variety of diseases and by meds such as _______ therapy
    • leukocyte
    • corticosteriod
  29. with a reduced immune response a ______ antibiotic may need to be used instead of a ______
    • bacteriocidal
    • bacteriostatic
  30. what are some examples of bactericidal drugs?
    • penicillin
    • cephalosporin
    • vancomycin
  31. what is the action of a bactericidal drug?
    interrupt cell wall synthesis during cell division
  32. what drug is a DNA synthesis inhbitor in aneorbes?
    metronidazole (flagyl)
  33. what are some examples of bacteriostatic drugs
    • erythromycin
    • clindamycin
    • tetracycline
  34. t/f immunocompetent hosts need to have bacteriocidal drugs and immunocompromised need bacteriostatic drugs
    • immunocompetent=bacteriostatic
    • immunocompromised=bacteriocidal
  35. bacterial cell wall inhibitors that are the most important are ______ and _____-______
    • vancomycin
    • beta-lactams
  36. what are the drugs of choice for antibacterial prophylaxis
    • penicillins
    • cephalosporins
  37. what is recommended if a beta-lactam allergy exists?
    clindamycin or macrolide antibiotics (azithromycin, clarithromycin)
  38. what is the prototype for the penicillin class?
    penicillin G
  39. how is penicillin G administered?
  40. what was the first oral doseform of penicillin?
    penicillin V
  41. what is the most common agent used today for penicillins?
    penicillin VK
  42. what was added to penicillin to enhance absorption?
  43. t/f penicillin VK is bactericidal
  44. what iss associated with a non allergic rash with pt with mononucleosis
  45. what is the most commonly prescribed anitbacterial drug in dentistry
    pen VK
  46. t/f penicillin is safe to give to pregnant women
    true class B
  47. amoxicillin + _____ ______ = augmentin
    clavulonic acid
  48. what is added to some penicillins to make resistant to penicillinase?
    clavulanic acid
  49. what is the prototype penicillinase resistant agent?
    dicloxacillin (dynapen)
  50. what is used when an organism releases penicillinase and degrades penicilllin molecules
    penicillinase resistant agents
  51. what antibiotic prophylaxis is used for a pt with TJR
  52. t/f cephalexin is a first line agent used for antibiotic prophylaxis for individulas with TJR
  53. Cephalosporins are structurally related to _____
  54. what drug is used for periodontal infection (gram negative)
    metronidazole (Flagyl)
  55. metronidazole is effective against _____ _____
    obligate anaerobes
  56. are the inhibitors of transcription or trnaslation of RNA bacteriostatic or bacteriocidal?
  57. what binds to the 50S ribosomal subunit?
  58. what are the agents that bind to 30S ribosomal subunit
    • tetracyclines
    • aminoglycosides-gentamycin, neomycin, streptomycin
  59. all of the following antibacterial agents are condsidered bacteriostatic except:
    A. minocycline
    B. doxycycline
    C. erythromycin
    D. clindamycin
    E. cephalosporin
    E. cephalosporin (beta-lactam)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  60. what are the three explanations for biofilms resistance to antibacterial agetns?
    • slow and incomplete penetration of antibacterial agents into bifolm
    • altered chemical microenviroment
    • low metabolic state
  61. t/f the bacteria are more susceptible to antibiotics when they are in their planktonic form rather than in biofilm
  62. once in biofilm bacteria are protected against _____ by PNMS (neutrophils)
  63. biofilm drug resistance is related to the slow and _____ penetration of ______ agents into biofilm
    • incomplete
    • antibacterial agents
  64. when taking the antibiotics you should instruct the pt to take agent ____ minutes before or ____ hours after a meal
    • 30 minutes
    • 2 hours
  65. what foods should tetracycline not be taken with?
    calcium containing foods
  66. why shouldn't tetracycline be taken with calcium?
    it binds to it and inhibits from working
  67. t/f amoxicillin, pen VK, metronidazole, azithromycin and clindamycin are affected by food
    FALSE are NOT affected by food
  68. which of the following antibacterial agents is structurally realted to penicillin?
    A. aminoglycocides
    B. metronidazole
    C. cephalosporins
    D. tetracycline
    E. erythromycin
    C. cehpalosporins
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  69. is aminioglycocides baceriostatic or bacteriocidal?
  70. is cephalosporins bacteriocidal or bacteriostatic?
  71. is erythromycin bacteriostatic or bacteriocidal?
  72. is metronidazole bacteriocidal or bacteriostatic
  73. is tetrcycline bacteriostatic or bacteriocidal
  74. t/f erythromycin is a macrolide?
  75. t/f cephalosporins is a beta lactam and is structurally realated to penicillin