Bugs by system

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laurarom33
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71084
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Bugs by system
Updated:
2011-03-07 10:10:14
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USMLE First Aid Microbiology
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systems section of microbiology chapter in First Aid 2010
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  1. Bugs from food poisoning
    • Bacillus cereus (reheated rice)
    • S. aureus (meats, mayonnaise -- preformed toxin)
    • Clostridium perfringes (reheated meat)
    • C. botulinum (home-canned, honey)
    • E. Coli (Jack-in-the-box)
    • Salmonella (poultry, meat, eggs)
    • Campylobacter (poultry, other)
  2. Bugs causing bloody diarrhea
    • Campylobacter
    • Salmonella
    • Shigella
    • EHEC (O157:H7)
    • EIEC
    • Yersinia entercolitica
    • C. Diff
    • Entamoeba histolytica
  3. Bugs causing Watery diarrhea
    • Bacteria: ETEC, V. Cholerae, C. Perfringens
    • Protozoa: Giardia, Cryptosporidium
    • Viruses: Rota, Adeno, Norwalk
  4. Bugs causing pneumonia in neonates
    • (less than a month old)
    • Group B Strep (agalactiae)
    • E.Coli
  5. Bugs causing pneumonia in Children
    • (1 mo. to 18 yrs.)
    • "Runts May Cough Sputum"
    • RSV (other viruses)
    • Mycoplasma
    • Chlamydia pneumoniae
    • Strep. pneumoniae
  6. Bugs causing pneumonia in Young Adults
    • (18-40 yrs)
    • Mycoplasma
    • Chlamydia pneumo
    • Strep pneumo

    (same as kids minus RSV)
  7. Bugs causing pneumonia in older adults
    • (40-65 yrs)
    • Mycoplasma
    • Strep pneumo
    • H.Flu
    • Anaerobes
    • Viruses
    • (like young adults minus Chlamydia plus bold)
  8. Bugs causing pneumonia in Elderly
    • (65+ yrs.)
    • Strep pneumo
    • H. Flu
    • Anaerobes
    • Viruses
    • G- rods
    • (like older adults minuse mycoplasma, plus G-rods)
  9. Bugs causing pneumonia in hospital patients
    • Staph
    • Enteric gram -
  10. Bugs causing pneumonia in immunocompromised
    • Staph
    • Enteric g -
    • fungi (PCP with HIV; mucor with DM)
    • viruses
  11. Bugs causing pneumonia in aspiration
    anaerobes
  12. Bugs causing pneumonia in Alcoholics/IV drug users
    • Klebsiella
    • S. pneumo
    • Staph
  13. Bugs causing pneumonia in postviral cases
    • Staph
    • H. Flu
  14. Bugs causing atypical pneumonia
    • Mycoplasma
    • Legionella
    • Chlamydia
    • Coxiella (Q Fever)
  15. Common causes of meningitis in newborn
    • (up to 6 mos)
    • Strep B
    • E. Coli
    • Listeria
    • (Bold = also cause pneumonia in neonates)
  16. Common causes of meningitis in Children
    • (6mo - 6yrs)
    • "from the time you start to walk (6mo-ish) until you go to school (6yrs), kids often fall and bump their SHiNs"
    • SHiN (Strep, Neiserria, HFlu)
    • +Enteroviruses (Echo, polio, coxsackie)
  17. Common causes of meningitis in 6-60 yrs
    • Neiserria Meningitidis
    • S. Pneumo - most common
    • Enteroviruses (PERC of picornaviruses)
    • HSV
  18. Common causes of meningitis 60+ yrs.
    • Listeria (like neonates!)
    • Strep pneumo
    • G - rods (like pneumonia in elderly!)
  19. Osteomyelitis in:
    Most people
    S. aureus
  20. Osteomyelitis in:
    Sexually active
    Neisseria (rare) - septic arthritis more common.
  21. Osteomyelitis in:
    Diabetics and druge addicts
    Pseudomonas
  22. Osteomyelitis in:
    Sickle Cell
    Salmonella (because encapsulated??)
  23. Osteomyelitis in:
    Prosthetic replacement
    • S. aureas
    • S. epidermidis
  24. Osteomyelitis in:
    Vertebra
    TB (Pott's disease)
  25. Osteomyelitis in:
    Cat and dog bites/scratches
    Pasteurella
  26. UTI bugs
    • SSEEK PP
    • Staph Saprophyticus
    • Serratia marcescens
    • E. Coli
    • Enterobacter
    • Klebsiella
    • Proteus
    • Pseudomonas
  27. UTI diagnostic markers:
    Leukocyte esterase positive?
    Nitrite test positive?
    • 1) bacterial
    • 2) gram negative
  28. TORCHeS infections
    • Toxoplasma gondii
    • Other - Strep B, Listeria, E. Coli (meningitis in newborn)
    • Rubella
    • CMV
    • HIV/HSV
    • Syphilis
  29. Nonspecific signs common in TORCHeS infections
    • hepatosplenomegaly
    • jaundice
    • thrombocytopenia
    • growth retardation
  30. what's the bug if you have a neonate with classic triad of:
    chorioretinitis
    hydrocephalus
    intracranial calcifications
    Toxoplasma gondii
  31. what's the bug if you have a neonate with:
    PDA (or pulmonary artery hypoplasia)
    cataracts
    deafness
    +/- "blueberry muffin" rash
    Rubella
  32. what's the bug if you have a neonate with
    hearing loss
    seizures
    CMV
  33. what's the bug if you have a neonate with:
    recurrent infections
    chronic diarrhea
    HIV
  34. what's the bug if you have a neonate with:
    Encephalitis
    vesicular lesions
    HSV
  35. what's the bug if you have a neonate with:
    stillbirth
    hydrops fetalis
    facial abnormalities (notched teeth, saddle nose, short maxilla)
    • (also saber shins but that gives it away for me)
    • Syphilis
  36. 8 red rashes of childhood
    • Measles (Rubeola/Measles)
    • Mumps (Mumps)
    • Rubella (German Measles)
    • VZV (Chickenpox)
    • HHV-6 (Roseola)
    • Parvovirus B19 (Erythema infectiosum)
    • Strep. pyogenes (Scarlet Fever)
    • Coxsackie A (Hand-foot-mouth)
  37. what's the bug if you have a kid with:
    rash starting at head and descending
    postauricular lymphadenopathy
    Rubella
  38. what's the bug if you have a kid with:
    rash starting at head and descending
    rash preceded by cough, head cold, conjunctivitis
    blue-white spots on buccal mucosa
    Measles
  39. what's the bug if you have a kid with:
    parotitis
    meningitis
    orchitis/oophoritis
    Mumps
  40. what's the bug if you have a kid with:
    rash that starts on trunk and spreads to face and extremities;
    lesions at different stages
    VZV - Chickenpox
  41. what's the bug if you have a kid with:
    macular rash over body after several days of fever
    usually in infants
    HHV6 - Roseola
  42. what's the bug if you have a kid with:
    "Slapped cheek" rash on face that later spreads to body in a reticular pattern
    • Parvovirus B19
    • (also can cause hydrops fetalis if pregnant woman infected)
  43. what's the bug if you have a kid with:
    erythematous, sandpaper-like rash
    fever
    sore throat
    Strep pyogenes (Scarlet Fever)
  44. what's the bug if you have a kid with:
    vesicular rash on palms and soles
    ulcers in oral mucosa
    Coxsackie A (hand-foot-mouth)
  45. painless chancre
    primary syphilis
  46. painful chancre
    • Chancroid - Haemophilus ducreyi
    • ("it's so painful, you "do cry")
    • or
    • HSV-2
  47. genital ulcers, lymphadenopathy,rectal strictures
    Lymphogranuloma venereum - Chlamydia trachomatis L1-L3
  48. Vaginitis, strawberry-colored mucosa
    Trichomonas vaginalis
  49. Genital warts, koilocytes
    Condylomata acuminata - HPV 6 and 11
  50. Noninflammatory, malodorous discharge; positive whiff test, clue cells
    Gardnerella vaginalis
  51. top bugs for PID. How do they differ in presentation?
    • Chlamydia - subacute, asymptomatic usually
    • Neisseria - acute, high fevers
  52. What can lead to Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome and what is it?
    • PID can progress.
    • = infection of liver capsule and "violin string" adhesions of parietal peritoneum to liver.
  53. Bug hints (if all else fails)
    pus, empyema, abscess
    S. aureus
  54. Bug hints (if all else fails)
    pediatric infection
    H. flu
  55. Bug hints (if all else fails)
    Pneumonia in CF, burn infxns
    Pseudomonas aeruginosa
  56. Bug hints (if all else fails)
    Branching rods in oral infection, sulfur granules
    Actinomyces israelii
  57. Bug hints (if all else fails)
    Traumatic open wound
    C. perfringes
  58. Bug hints (if all else fails)
    surgical wounds
    S. aureus
  59. Bug hints (if all else fails)
    Dog or cat bite
    Pasteurella multocida
  60. Bug hints (if all else fails)
    currant jelly sputum
    Klebsiella
  61. Bug hints (if all else fails)
    positive PAS stain
    Tropheryma whippelii (Whipple's disease)
  62. Bug hints (if all else fails)
    Sepsis/meningitis in newborn
    Group B strep
  63. Bug hints (if all else fails)
    Health care provider
    HBV (needle stick)
  64. Bug hints (if all else fails)
    Fungal infection in diabetic
    Mucor or Rhizopus spp.
  65. Bug hints (if all else fails)
    Asplenic patient
    Encapsulated microbes, esp. SHiN
  66. Bug hints (if all else fails)
    Chronic granulomatous disease
    catalase-positive species (S. aureus, Nocardia spp., Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas cepacia, Aspergillus spp.)
  67. Bug hints (if all else fails)
    neutropenic patients
    Candida albicans
  68. Bug hints (if all else fails)
    Bilateral Bell's palsy
    • Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme disease)
    • remember: BAKE a keyLYME pie = bell's palsy, arthritis, kardiac block, erythema migrans
  69. name the bug for an HIV+ adults if:
    -low-grade fevers, cough, hepatosplenomegaly
    -oval yeast cells within macrophages
    Histoplasma capsulatum (causes only pulmonary symptoms in immunocompetent hosts)
  70. name the bug for an HIV+ adults if:
    -fluffy white cottage-cheese lesions
    -often on buccal mucosa
    Candida albicans (causes thrush)
  71. name the bug for an HIV+ adults if:
    -superficial vascular proliferation
    -biopsy reveals neutrophilic inflammation
    Bartonella henselae (causes bacillary angiomatosis)
  72. name the bug for an HIV+ adults if:
    -superficial neoplastic proliferation of vasculature
    -biopsy reveals lymphocytic inflammation
    HHV-8 (Kaposi's sarcoma)
  73. name the bug for an HIV+ adults if:
    -chronic, watery diarrhea
    -acid-fast cysts seen in stool
    Cryptosporidium spp. (protozoa)
  74. name the bug for an HIV+ adults if:
    -meningitis
    -India ink stain reveals narrow-based budding
    Cryptococcus neoformans (may also cause encephalitis)
  75. name the bug for an HIV+ adults if:
    -Encephalopathy
    -due to reactivation of a latent virus; results in demyelination
    JC virus (cause of PML)
  76. name the bug for an HIV+ adults if:
    -neuronal abscesses
    -many ring-enhancing lesions on imaging
    Toxoplasma gondii
  77. name the bug for an HIV+ adults if:
    -retinitis
    -cotton-wool spots on funduscopic exam
    CMV
  78. name the bug for an HIV+ adults if:
    -Hairy leukoplakia
    -Often on lateral tongue
    EBV
  79. name the bug for an HIV+ adults if:
    -non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (large cell type)
    -Often on oropharynx (Waldeyer's ring)
    EBV
  80. name the bug for an HIV+ adults if:
    -squamous cell carcinoma
    -often in anus (MSM) or cervix (females)
    HPV
  81. name the bug for an HIV+ adults if:
    -Tuberculosis-like disease
    -especially with CD4 < 50
    MAC
  82. name the bug for an HIV+ adults if:
    -pneumonia
    -esp. with CD4 , 200
    PCP
  83. name the bug for an HIV+ adults if:
    -pleuritic pain, hemoptysis, infiltrates on imaging
    Aspergillus fumigatus
  84. name the bug for an HIV+ adults if:
    -Interstitial pneumonia
    -Biopsy reveals cells with intranuclear and cytoplasmic inclusion bodies
    CMV
  85. name the bug for an unimmunized child if:
    -rash that starts at head and moves down
    -rash proceded by cough, conjunctivitis
    • -also coryza, Koplik spots (but those would give it away)
    • = MEASLES
  86. name the bug for an unimmunized child if:
    -rash that starts at head and moves down
    -postauricular lymphadenopathy
    Rubella
  87. name the bug for an unimmunized child if:
    -meningitis
    -sometimes myalgia and paralysis
    • H. Flu B
    • or
    • Polio
  88. name the bug for an unimmunized child if:
    -pharyngitis
    -Grayish oropharyngeal exudate (pseudomembrane)
    -painful throat
    • Corynebacterium diphtheriae
    • (elaborates toxin that causes necrosis in cardiac and CNS tissue)
  89. name the bug for an unimmunized child if:
    -Epiglottitis
    -fever with dysphagia, droolin, difficulty breathing due to edematous "cherry red" epiglottis.
    H. Flu B (also capable of causing epiglottitis in fully immunized children)

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