MH3 Test 2

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zspruill
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71109
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MH3 Test 2
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2011-03-06 20:33:08
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Music History
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Music History
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  1. Sergei Diaghilev
    • put Mir iskusstva (“The world of art”) on the map by organizing art exhibits and editing a superb arts journal by the same name
    • efforts sparked a resurgence of ballet that lasted to the end of the 10th century and beyond
    • toward the beginning of the twentieth century made ballet one of the major sites of artistic and musical innovation
  2. Ballets russes
    Russian ballet company that performed in many countries
  3. Igor Stravinsky 1882-1971
    Stravinsky's compositional career was notable for its stylistic diversity. He first achieved international fame with three ballets commissioned by the impresario Sergei Diaghilev and performed by Diaghilev's Ballets Russes (Russian Ballets): The Firebird (1910), Petrushka (1911/1947), and The Rite of Spring (1913). The Rite, whose premiere provoked a riot, transformed the way in which subsequent composers thought about rhythmic structure, and was largely responsible for Stravinsky's enduring reputation as a musical revolutionary, pushing the boundaries of musical design.
  4. The Firebird
    The Firebird and Petrushka continued the Russian traditional of separating diatonic/folk (human aspect) influence from octatonic/chromatic (supernatural aspect) influence
  5. Petrushka
    The Firebird and Petrushka continued the Russian traditional of separating diatonic/folk (human aspect) influence from octatonic/chromatic (supernatural aspect) influence
  6. The Rite of Spring
    Rite of Spring - maximalized the conflation of diatonic vs. chromaticorchestra enormous with noisy, non-pitched percussionrhythm becomes as important as harmony and melodyostinato rhythmshyperstatizing elementsprimitivism: layering of ostinatos, “montage technique”; piling on of ideas used to create tension and movementminor tetrachord = first 4 pitches of minor scaletechnically demandingodd meter changesPierre Monteaux (French) conducted the premiere of Rite of Springlayering, layering, layeringlayers stem from a traditional folk-song idea harmonized by a whole tone scaleVaslav Nijinsky: dancer; dance role of Petrushka at premiere; choreographed Rite of SpringTheodor Adorno 1903-69 (German): would be come one of the most influential music critic in early-mid 20th cent.complained that there was no possibility for interpretation of the music because rhythms had to be so precise“Rite” chord (atonal triad)= perefect 4th+tritone; (A,D,Eb)
  7. Commedia dell’arte
    the closest translation being "comedy of art", (shortened from commedia dell'arte all'improviso, or "comedy through the art of improvisation") is a form of theatre that began in Italy in the mid-16th century characterized by masked "types", the advent of the actress and improvised performances based on sketches or scenarios.The performers played on outside, temporary stages, and relied on various props (robbe) in place of extensive scenery
  8. “Petrushka Chord”
    The Petrushka chord is defined as two simultaneous major triads (0 4 7) separated by a tritone (0 6). In Petrushka Stravinsky used C major on top of F♯ major
  9. “Rite Chord”
    (atonal triad)= perefect 4th+tritone; (A,D,Eb)
  10. minor tetrachord
    first 4 pitches of minor scalefound in Rite of Spring
  11. Primitivism
    layering of ostinatos, “montage technique”; piling on of ideas used to create tension and movementfound in Rite of Spring
  12. Ostinato Rhythm
    found in Rite of Springlayered in Primitivism
  13. Vaslav Nininsky
    dancer; dance role of Petrushka at premiere; choreographed Rite of Spring
  14. Pierre Monteux
    (French) conducted the premiere of Rite of Spring
  15. Theodore Adorno
    1903-69 (German): would be come one of the most influential music critic in early-mid 20th cent.complained that there was no possibility for interpretation of the music (Rite of Spring) because rhythms had to be so precise
  16. Alexander Scriabin
    1875-1915
    born on Christmas dayvirtuoso pianist; toured early in careerChopin was his early compositional modelRussian by birth - Moscow; lived all around Europeinterest in symbolists - but would take it an entirely different directionbecame interested in mysticism - mvmt founded by fake Russians in New York City1905-10: highly influential in Russian societies in Americamerge Christian beliefs with Eastern religions; unify bits of different religions as one universal truthconsidered art a superior form of knowledge; could provide a true reality and a path to the transcendental worldScriabin’s Key-Colour Schemewanted maximum triggering of as many senses as possibleeach key represented a color and abstract mind idea (knowledge, peace, etc..)Whole tone and octatonic harmonies of primary importanceOp. 48/4 - governed by “whole tone” relationships; whole tone “nodes”used lots of 5th relationships and tritone root movement, tritone mvmt an influence from Chopinonly 2 pure chords in entire piecealmost entirely dominant 7th chordsclear AABA from“tirtone link”invariance - “limited transposition” - ex. Scriabin transposing wholetone harmony up a tritone = different roots but same pitchesprivate world of piano workspublic world of symphonic works - 5 major symphonic worksSymphony #1 - 1899 - E Major - 6 mvmvts, last mvmts include vocal soloist and chorusSymphony #2 - 1901 - C minor - 5 mvmts but pretty traditionalSymphony #3 - “Divine Poem” - 1902-4 - no key signature - instrumental - interconnected movementSymphony #4 - “The Poem of Ecstasy” - 1905-8 - 1 mvmt work with enormous orchestra - governed by whole tone ideas and “invariance” - all about whole tone collections resolving to C Majormystic chord (prometheus chord) - whole tone + diatonic; Fr+6 chord with an added pitch from the whole tone scale and a pitch from the octatonic scaleSymphony #5 - “Prometheus, Poem of FIre” - chorus, piano solo, light piano, huge orchestra
  17. Aggregate Harmony
    inclusion of all 12 chromatic pitches
  18. “Tritone Link”
    chord used by Scriabin to connect two other chords
  19. Mysticism
    mvmt founded by fake Russians in New York City1905-10: highly influential in Russian societies in Americamerge Christian beliefs with Eastern religions; unify bits of different religions as one universal truthconsidered art a superior form of knowledge; could provide a true reality and a path to the transcendental world
  20. Mystic Chord
    • mystic chord (prometheus chord) - whole tone + diatonic; Fr+6 chord with an added pitch from the whole tone scale and a pitch from the octatonic scale
    • Scriabin
  21. Preludes, Op. 74
    • Scriabin
    • example of invariance - “limited transposition” - ex. Scriabin transposing wholetone harmony up a tritone = different roots but same pitches
  22. Le poeme de l’extase, Op. 54
    • Scriabin
    • Symphony #4 - “The Poem of Ecstasy” - 1905-8 - 1 mvmt work with enormous orchestra
    • - governed by whole tone ideas and “invariance” - all about whole tone collections resolving to C Major
  23. Promethee, Op. 60
    • Scriabin
    • Symphony #5 - “Prometheus, Poem of FIre” - chorus, piano solo, light piano, huge orchestra
  24. Olivier Messiaen
    • 1930s - song recital with Henry Cowell in Paris with Messiaen at the Pianoa
    • French composer, organist and ornithologist, widely regarded as one of the major composers of the 20th century.
    • His music is rhythmically complex (he was interested in rhythms from ancient Greek and from Hindu sources); harmonically and melodically it is based on modes of limited transposition, which he abstracted from his early compositions and improvisations
  25. Technique de mon langage musical
    book by Messiaen compiled of his Modes of limited transposition are musical modes or scales that fulfill specific criteria relating to their symmetry and the repetition of their interval groups
  26. Non-retrogradable Rhythm
    a pattern of note durations that is read or performed the same either forwards or backwards, i.e., it is a rhythmic palindrome. The term is used most frequently in the context of the music of Olivier Messiaenfound in the first movement and sixth movement of Messiaen's Quatuor pour la fin du temps
  27. Les corps glorieux
    • - Organ
    • Les Corps glorieux was performed privately by Messiaen for his students on 22 July 1941 at La Trinité.
    • Mvts. 4 and 6 were publically premiered by Messiaen on 28 December 1941 in an organ recital at the Palais de Chaillot.
  28. Turangalîa-Symphonie
    a large-scale piece of orchestral music by Olivier Messiaen. It was written from 1946 to 1948, on a commission by Serge Koussevitzky for the Boston Symphony Orchestra. The premiere was given by that orchestra on December 2, 1949, conducted by Leonard Bernstein in Boston. The commission did not specify the duration, orchestral requirements or style of the piece, leaving the decisions up to the composer.[1] Koussevitzky was billed to conduct the premiere but fell ill[citation needed] and the task was then given to the young Bernstein
  29. Ondes martenot
    an early electronic musical instrument invented in 1928 by Maurice Martenot. The original design was similar in sound to the theremin.[1] The sonic capabilities of the instrument were later expanded by the addition of timbral controls and switchable loudspeakers.
  30. Charles Ives 1874-1954

    Didn’t compose original music entire life
    composed original music through the early 1920s
    example of why it’s hard to date his works

    Concord Sonata - Piano Sonata No.2

    sketches in 1904
    1911 begins substantial work
    1915 completed first version
    1920 published parts of it
    1947 revised version


    foreshadowed many of the important musical innovations in Europe and America
    born in Danbury, CT into a wealthy business/political family
    family was pro-abolition/pro-rights
    George Ives - Father
    Charles trained in the Protestant Church - became an organist
    musical training from his father included traditional harmony, etc.; also encouraged experimentation outside of textbook musical techniques; also made Ives realize that all music was equally valid
    musical training at Yale with Horatio Parker 1863-1919 (quintessential classical musician); solidified Ives’ classical training; Parker had Ives reset many German lieder texts with new music
    continued to play organ in church while in school at Yale; independently began to use hymn tunes as basis for melodic language
    use of diatonic melody is very important for certain representations
    moved to New York City -- many business connections, also continued as church organist
    Central Presbyterian Church in NYC (one of the main churches) until 1902, held the premiere of The Celestial Country

    mildly recieved
    no one really complained, but they weren’t really excited either
    caused his resignation as church organist
    began selling insurance


    1907 - founded insurance company; became largest in the US and Ives became a millionaire
    until 1920s - composed prolifically
    Didn’t compose original music entire lifecomposed original music through the early 1920sexample of why it’s hard to date his worksConcord Sonata - Piano Sonata No.2sketches in 19041911 begins substantial work1915 completed first version1920 published parts of it1947 revised versionforeshadowed many of the important musical innovations in Europe and Americaborn in Danbury, CT into a wealthy business/political familyfamily was pro-abolition/pro-rightsGeorge Ives - FatherCharles trained in the Protestant Church - became an organistmusical training from his father included traditional harmony, etc.; also encouraged experimentation outside of textbook musical techniques; also made Ives realize that all music was equally validmusical training at Yale with Horatio Parker 1863-1919 (quintessential classical musician); solidified Ives’ classical training; Parker had Ives reset many German lieder texts with new musiccontinued to play organ in church while in school at Yale; independently began to use hymn tunes as basis for melodic languageuse of diatonic melody is very important for certain representationsmoved to New York City -- many business connections, also continued as church organistCentral Presbyterian Church in NYC (one of the main churches) until 1902, held the premiere of The Celestial Countrymildly recievedno one really complained, but they weren’t really excited eithercaused his resignation as church organistbegan selling insurance1907 - founded insurance company; became largest in the US and Ives became a millionaireuntil 1920s - composed prolifically
  31. The Celestial Country
    • Ives
    • mildly recievedno one really complained, but they weren’t really excited eithercaused his resignation as church organistbegan selling insurance
  32. String Quartet No.2 (Ives)
    • three mvmt work
    • DiscussionsArgumentsCall to the mountain
    • consonance also used as an idea of pure transcendental arrival
  33. “From Paracelsus”
    “Epiphany Form” - starting with something extremely complex and clashing followed with consonance and more pure tonality
  34. Concord Sonata
    • Concord Sonata - Piano Sonata No.2
    • sketches in 1904
    • 1911 begins substantial work
    • 1915 completed first version
    • 1920 published parts of it
    • 1947 revised version
  35. Three Places in New England
    • Movements
    • 1. Boston Commons
    • 2. Putnam’s Camp in Redding, CT
    • 3. Housatonic at Stockbridgeperceived in a sort of stream of consciousness (influence of James Joyce; transcendentalist writer)people focused on the modernist elementstempo juxtaposition (marching)
  36. Three Quarter-Tone Pieces
    • using two pianos tuned 1/4tone away from one another
    • use of microtonessought the extension of traditional ideals, not the abolition of them
  37. Universe Symphony
    • sketches date from 1911-1915
    • Ives was working towards an idealized representation of the divine universe in music...
  38. Essays Before a Sonata
    a little book published by Ives and distributed alongside the Concord Sonata in order to explain its “substance”
  39. Horatio Parker
    Ives’ musical training at Yale with Horatio Parker 1863-1919 (quintessential classical musician); solidified Ives’ classical training; Parker had Ives reset many German lieder texts with new music
  40. Transcendentalism
    trusting the individuality, learning from experience, through a certain trust of your instinct could reveal a divine truth
  41. Ralph Waldo Emerson
    major literary figure of TrascendentalismIves named the first movement of his Concord Sonata after him
  42. Henry David Thoreau
    • major literary figure of Trascendentalism
    • Ives named the fourth movement of his Concord Sonata after him

    • most of the clarity of the piece comes in this mvmt
    • most pure representation of “Epiphany” form
  43. Ruth Crawford Seeger 1910 - 1953
    • wife of Charles Seeger
    • with husband created catalogues of American folk music
    • one of first composers to apply systematic ideas to musical characteristics other than pitch (ex. systemizing dynamics, etc.)
    • formed middle ground between traditional and entirely modern composers
    • Carl Sandberg (famous Chicago poet): Ruth contributed folk song settings that he converted into poems
    • first woman to receive Guggenheim (1930)
  44. Charles Seeger 1886-1979
    • professor at Berkley
    • taught first courses of musicology in the U.S.
    • appointed to do important ethnomusicology research during Roosevelt’s New Deal
  45. Henry Cowell 1897 - 1965
    - founded the publication New Music in 1927

    • began publishing Ives pieces in his journal
    • Ives begins gaining a reputation in 1930s



    • 1930s - song recital in Paris with Messiaen at the Piano
    • 1947 - wins Pulitzer Prize for Third Symphony
    • 1951 - Bernstein conducted the world premiere of the Second Symphony
    • 1953 - premiere of the First Symphony
  46. Dynamic Motion
    Cowell’s first important work to explore the possibilities of the tone cluster
  47. Harry Partch
    • interest in microtones
    • led to exploration of earlier tuning systems
    • in addition to composting he built instruments, developed a new system of notation, and formed an ensemble to perform his own music
    • around 1940: fixed himself on a 43-part division of the octave; “Just Intonation”: intonation system based on whole-number ratios
    • viewed his pieces as classical music meant to be performed
    • used a lot of text; rhythmically precise, pitch less important because of difficulty (43 chromatic pitches)
  48. Just Intonation
    any musical tuning in which the frequencies of notes are related by ratios of small whole numbers. Any interval tuned in this way is called a just interval. The two notes in any just interval are members of the same harmonic series
  49. Barstow
    written by Partch
  50. Luigi Russolo
    • made entire orchestra of instruments that could produce noise sounds (Intonarumori)
    • families of sounds within “orchestra”
    • The Art of Noises (1913)

    • felt the orchestra was limited in pitch and timbre
    • saw music as real life
    • noise was representative of all facets of everyday life


    • representing music as science instead of art
    • influence on Edgard Varése
  51. Edgard Varése
    • born in Paris, but moved to NYC in 1915
    • traditional training at Schola Contorum and Paris Conservatory
    • Dadaist idea (using found objects to express art)
    • highly trained as a conductor
    • part of his musical style -- extremities (instruments playing in uncomfortable registers, etc..)
    • founded Pan-American Assocaition of Composers

    based on seriously performing non-American compositions in America

    • interested in finding new musical notation means and sound means
    • only 12 published compositions

    only 4 used string instruments

    • hated vibrato and uneven pitches
    • hated multiplying parts for volumes sake
    • orchestration focuses on winds and brass; interested in outer limits of frequency
    • heavy emphasis on percussion instruments
    • became interested in electronic instruments later in life
  52. “Amériques” 1920
    • title is not meant to be “America”; more supposed to represent Americanisms (freedom, pursuit of happiness, etc..)
    • almost uncharacteristic -- extremely larch Mahler-sized orchestra -- from here on out, will pick and choose instruments that best suit the composition
    • revised in 1927 -- smaller orchestra
    • influence of Debussy (Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun) and Stravinsky (Rite of Spring)
    • no reference to traditional harmonic structures
    • everything is based on small ‘cells’ that are repeated/layered/altered in color
    • no traditional forms
    • no transitional material; ideas simply presented and layered in different ways
    • some critics felt that his music was an assault on the the listeners because of all the noise
  53. “Intégrales” 1925
    a more characteristic composition of Varese
  54. Magyar nota
    Hungarian music
  55. Zoltan Kodály 1882-1967
    • not a modernist
    • interested more in the ethnomusicological research into native Hungarian melodies
    • traveled with Bartok to many countries recording native folk songs
    • 1906 - publication of 20 folk songs, Bartok and Kodaly added piano accompaniment

    • ABB form
    • publication unsuccessful; Bartok blamed it on his regularization of the folk tunes
  56. Béla Bartók 1881-1945
    • Hungarian
    • first composer of international stature to speak Hungarian as primary language
    • modeled early career after Liszt -- wanted to become a concert pianist
    • studied piano/composing at Budapest Academy
    • moved to NYC around WWI
    • Conceived three ways of using folk songs:


    • take the melody as is and add accompaniment
    • don’t use a real folk melody, but imitate and create a melody of your own
    • use neither folk melodies nor imitations of folk melodies, instead extract/use the essence and atmosphere created by the folk music to create an original sound

    #3 would become the most personal type of use by Bartok


    • interested in the dorian mode because it’s symmetrical from the middle because it contains tetrachords
    • Z-tetrachord: a subset of the octatonic collection
    • Y-tetrachord: whole-tone
    • X-tetrachord: chromatic cluster
    • liked the D-7 chord and its symmetry from the middle
    • quartal harmony important
    • idea of symmetry important
    • lydian-mixolydian scale (overtone scale) = combination of two modes from overtone series
  57. Kossuth (1903)
    • symphonic poem
    • Liszt was ‘creator’ of symphonic poems
    • modeled after Strauss’ Ein Heldenleben
  58. Bagatelles, Op. 6
    • Bartok
    • 14 short pieces - 1908
    • liked the D-7 chord and its symmetry
    • ABB structure
    • example of 1st method of folk song use


    Magyar nota (Hungarian Music)

    Hungarian Language - non Indo-European language

    strong-weak accent pattern gives a characteristic Hungarian rhythm


    Liszt was already incorporating Hungarian elements into his works

    using the ‘exported’ Magyar nota ideas; didn’t strive for authenticity
  59. Lydian-Mixolydian Mode
    combination of two modes from overtone series
  60. Arch or Bridge form
    ABCB’A’ structure
  61. Z-tetrachord
    a subset of the octatonic collection
  62. Y-tetrachord
    whole-tone
  63. X-tetrachord
    chromatic cluster
  64. Fibonacci series
    fibinacci sequence (1:1:2:3:5:8...89...each number is the sum of the two numbers before it) an important event happens at each of these measures
  65. Night Music
    • characteristic sound of Bartoks music
    • eerie slow movement
    • distant melodic quotes using Hungarian rhythms
    • coloristic effects, birdsong, insect noise imitations
    • name comes from one of his older pieces Out of Doors
  66. Bartok Pizzicato
    • - in fourth mvmt of String Quartet No. 4
    • - Allegreto pizzicato (coloristic, focus) - use of “Bartok pizz” or “snap pizz”

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