Nutrition for the Patient

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Nutrition for the Patient
2011-03-06 18:24:44

NURS 16. CH 21
Show Answers:

  1. What are nutrients?
    chemical substances found in foods
  2. What is essential nutrient? What are the six classes of essential nutrients?
    essential nutrient- nutrients needed for the human body to function; they must be consumed in the diet every day

    • six classes of nutrients:
    • carbohydrates
    • protein
    • fats
    • water
    • vitamins
    • minerals
  3. What are the 3 function of essential nutrients?
    • to form and maintain body cell functions
    • to provide energy
    • to regulate body processes
  4. What is a regular diet?
    a basic, or well-balanced, diet containing appropriate amounts of foods from each of the food groups
  5. What is therapeutic diet?
    any special diet

    a registered dietitian (RD) assesses a patient's nutritional status and ensures that appropriate therapeutic diets are implemented
  6. Assisting patient with foods
    • when food tray is delivered, do everything you can to make the patient's meal as pleasant and comfortable as possible
    • make sure the room is clean, quiet, free of unpleasant odors, and not to warm or cool
    • take away things that might spoil the patient's appetite- items such as an emesis basin, urinal, or bedpan
  7. GUIDELINES: feeding a patient with dysphagia
    • positioning
    • the patient with a 90degree felexion of hips and a 45degree neck
    • flexion is recommended. pillows can be used behind the back and neck if
    • needed to maintain this position. if the patient is in bed, the knees
    • can be cranked up to prevent the patient from slipping down)feeding
    • liquids can be easier using a cut-out cut and reminding the patient to
    • keep his head down, suck in a small amount of liquid, swallow, then restplace
    • solid food on the tongue with a spoon. wait and be sure the mouth is
    • empty before offering more food. very cold foods or Italian ices between
    • every five or six bites can make it easier for some patients to eat.
    • avoid offering dry foods, for example, bread, waffles, and pancakes.
    • Extra honey, syrup, butter, or applesauce can help make these foods
    • easier to swallow for patients who desire themencourage the patient to swallow twice after each bitepresent food from the midline and belowbe patient and offer verbal cues as neededcheck that the mouth is empty after the feeding and have the patient remain sitting for 30 minutes
  8. What is dysphagia and what are the symptoms?
    Dysphagia is difficulty chewing or swallowing due to damage to the nerves and muscles involved in swallowing (from head and neck cancer, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's or Alzheimer's disease)

    Symptoms include pocketing of food in the mouth, drooling, coughing, especially foloowing sips of liquid, choking on food, frequent clearing of the throat, and speaking in a wet, gargly voice