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information represented in memory.
info that's available AND can be retrieved at a specific time/place.
- strong cue vs a weak cue = strong cue works better
- weak cues vs no cues = weak cues work better
- good cues are those that are present during the study session
with encoding specificity
recall is better than recognition
context dependent memory
- scuba divers and people on land learning word lists
- remembered more words in the same context
- contexts: rooms, music, odors, temperature
state dependent memory
- learning and testing in the same psysiological state
- alcohol, marijuana
the act of recalling some of the info in a set makes it harder to remember everything else.
given partial cues, it makes it harder for the subject to recall everything else
info weakens or is lost over time if not used.
forgetting is a direct result of more learning
- new learning interferes with previously learned info.
- beneficial with episodic memory - moving alot
- detrimental with semantic memory - always need to know who the president was even if theres a new one.
- occurs when same cue is associated with 2 different responses
- learning 2 languages 2 diff words for same word in english
- knowing that
- anything you can say you know (taking a test)
non declarative memory
- cannot talk about or explain the memory
know how, physical skills
for specific experiences (what you had for dinner)
general worl knowledge
paired associate learning
have to learn an association b/t word pairs
techniques for studying long term memory
- paired associate learning
- incidental vs intentional learning
incidental vs intentional learning
- intentional : studying something because you know your memory will be tested
- incidental: info about the world learned as you go
levels of processing
- the way you encode info determines how well it will be remembered
- to control cognitive processes at encoding
- to control how you encode the info
- additional new analyses of a stimulus is required.
- moves info into long term
encoding in LTM requires
something remembered better if you can relate it to something you already know
clustering during input
studying a list of words in the order of their categories instead of all jumbled up
clustering in recall
recalling in categories that are related even if learning in an order that is unrelated
given a list of unrelated words we create our own relationships for the words
Von Restorff effect
- we remember things better when they stand out
will remember something better if you can relate it to yourself of your life
- shallow processing task: do words rime?
- deep processing task: how pleasant is the word.
- self reference task: does the word ___ describe you?
remember better when you produce the data
- mental travel
- dual code hypothesis
when shown a map and asked to reavel from one point to another subjects took more time to travel farther.
dual code hypothesis
- concrete words easier to remember and can be stored verbally and visually
- abstract words harder to remember and can only be stored audibly
- photographic memory
- misnomer - usually takes a while to acquire the whole image, not instantaneous
dual task technique
- trying to do 2 things at the same time
- if cannot be done at the same time - assume that each task is using the same memory subsystem.
word length effect
shorter words remembered easier than long words
- how long info stays in short term when you can't rehearse it
- suggests that forgetting is caused by decay.
harder to learn a list when the sounds are the same
semantic codes STM learning
- when learning a list of the same category of general things over and over again, performance decreases b/c old info gets in the way of the new
- performance goes up if the last list is a different category
- more difficult to maintain a visual image
- more you have to rotate an image the longer it takes to respond