Mem and Cog Exam 2 notes terms

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jax12
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Mem and Cog Exam 2 notes terms
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2011-03-06 18:41:33
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Mem Cog Exam notes terms
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Mem and Cog Exam 2 notes terms
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  1. availability
    information represented in memory.
  2. accessibility
    info that's available AND can be retrieved at a specific time/place.
  3. cue strength
    • strong cue vs a weak cue = strong cue works better
    • weak cues vs no cues = weak cues work better
    • good cues are those that are present during the study session
  4. with encoding specificity
    recall is better than recognition
  5. context dependent memory
    • scuba divers and people on land learning word lists
    • remembered more words in the same context
    • contexts: rooms, music, odors, temperature
  6. state dependent memory
    • learning and testing in the same psysiological state
    • alcohol, marijuana
  7. retrieval inhibition
    the act of recalling some of the info in a set makes it harder to remember everything else.
  8. part-set cuing
    given partial cues, it makes it harder for the subject to recall everything else
  9. decay theory
    info weakens or is lost over time if not used.
  10. interference
    forgetting is a direct result of more learning
  11. retroactive interference
    • new learning interferes with previously learned info.
    • beneficial with episodic memory - moving alot
    • detrimental with semantic memory - always need to know who the president was even if theres a new one.
  12. response competition
    • occurs when same cue is associated with 2 different responses
    • learning 2 languages 2 diff words for same word in english
  13. declarative memory
    • knowing that
    • anything you can say you know (taking a test)
  14. non declarative memory
    • cannot talk about or explain the memory
    • procedural/priming
  15. procedural memory
    know how, physical skills
  16. episodic memory
    for specific experiences (what you had for dinner)
  17. semantic memory
    general worl knowledge
  18. paired associate learning
    have to learn an association b/t word pairs
  19. techniques for studying long term memory
    • recall
    • recognition
    • paired associate learning
    • incidental vs intentional learning
  20. incidental vs intentional learning
    • intentional : studying something because you know your memory will be tested
    • incidental: info about the world learned as you go
  21. levels of processing
    • the way you encode info determines how well it will be remembered
    • shallow/deep
  22. orienting task
    • to control cognitive processes at encoding
    • to control how you encode the info
  23. maintenance rehearsal
    rote memorization
  24. elaborative rehearsal
    • additional new analyses of a stimulus is required.
    • moves info into long term
  25. encoding in LTM requires
    • organization
    • distinctiveness
  26. organization
    something remembered better if you can relate it to something you already know
  27. clustering during input
    studying a list of words in the order of their categories instead of all jumbled up
  28. clustering in recall
    recalling in categories that are related even if learning in an order that is unrelated
  29. subjective organization
    given a list of unrelated words we create our own relationships for the words
  30. Von Restorff effect
    • we remember things better when they stand out
    • distinctiveness
  31. self-reference test
    will remember something better if you can relate it to yourself of your life
  32. orienting task
    • shallow processing task: do words rime?
    • deep processing task: how pleasant is the word.
    • self reference task: does the word ___ describe you?
    • shallow
  33. generation effect
    remember better when you produce the data
  34. imagery
    • mental travel
    • dual code hypothesis
  35. mental travel
    when shown a map and asked to reavel from one point to another subjects took more time to travel farther.
  36. dual code hypothesis
    • concrete words easier to remember and can be stored verbally and visually
    • abstract words harder to remember and can only be stored audibly
  37. eidetic images
    • photographic memory
    • misnomer - usually takes a while to acquire the whole image, not instantaneous
  38. dual task technique
    • trying to do 2 things at the same time
    • if cannot be done at the same time - assume that each task is using the same memory subsystem.
  39. word length effect
    shorter words remembered easier than long words
  40. Brown-Peterson technique
    • how long info stays in short term when you can't rehearse it
    • suggests that forgetting is caused by decay.
  41. phonological similarity
    harder to learn a list when the sounds are the same
  42. semantic codes STM learning
    • when learning a list of the same category of general things over and over again, performance decreases b/c old info gets in the way of the new
    • performance goes up if the last list is a different category
  43. visual codes
    • more difficult to maintain a visual image
    • more you have to rotate an image the longer it takes to respond

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