PSYC Ch.6

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mmb65
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71129
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PSYC Ch.6
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2011-03-12 16:26:35
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PSYC553
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Personality exam 2
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  1. Genome
    the complete set of genes and organism posesses (about 25,000 in humans)
  2. Eugenics
    the notion that we can design the future of human species by fostering the reproduction of persons with certain traits and by discouraging of persons without those traits.
  3. percentage of variance
    refers to the fact that individuals vary, or are differeent from eachother, and this variability can be partitioned into percentages that are due to different causes
  4. heritability
    is a statistic that refers to the proportion of observed variance in a group of individuals that can be accounted for by genetic variance
  5. Phenotype variance
    refers to observed individual differences, such as height, weight or personality
  6. genotype variance
    refers to individual differences in the total collection of genes posseed by each person
  7. environmentality
    percentage observed varienance in a group of individuals that cna be attributed to environmental (nongenetic) differences
  8. nature-nurture debate
    the arguments about wether genes or environments are more important determinants of personality
  9. Family studies
    correlate the degree of genetic relatedness amoung family members with the degree of perosnality similarity and capitalize on the fact that there are known degrees of genetic overlap among family members
  10. twin studies
    estimate heritability by gauging whether identical twins, who share 100% of their genes are more similar to eachother than fraternal twins who only share 50% of their genes
  11. monozygotic (MZ) twins
    identical
  12. dizygotic (DZ) twins
    fraternal twins
  13. adoption studies
    examine correlations between adopted children and their adoptive parents, whom they share no genes
  14. genotype-environmental interaction
    refers to the differential response of individuals with diffeent genotypes to the same environment
  15. genotype-environment correlation
    the differntial exposure of individuals with different genotypes
  16. passive genotype-environment correlation
    occurs when parents provide both genes and the environment to the children, yet the children do nothing to obtain that environment
  17. reactive genotype-environment correlation
    occurs whn parents (or others) respond to children differently depending on the childrens genotypes
  18. active genotype envoronment correllation
    occurs when a person with a particular genotype creates or seeks out a particulare environment
  19. molecular genetics
    techniques designed to identify the specific genes associated with specific traits, such as personality traits.
  20. DRD4
    most frequently examined gene which is located on the short arm of chromosome 11
  21. environmentalist view
    personality was determied by socialization practices, such as parenting style
  22. Goals of behavioral genetics
    • - Determine the percentage of individual differences in a trait that can be attributed to genetic differences and percentage that can be attributed to environmental differences
    • - Determine the ways in which genes and environment interact and correlate with each other to produce individual differences
    • - Determine precisely where in the “environment” environmental effects exist—e.g., parental socialization, different teachers to which children are exposed
  23. heritability
    • - Proportion of observed variance in group of individuals that can be explained or accounted for by genetic variance
    • - Proportion of phenotypic variance that is attributable to genetic variance
  24. Misconceptions about heritability
    - Heritability CANNOT be applied to single individual

    - Heritability is NOT constant or immutable

    - Heritability is NOT a precise statistic
  25. selective breeding
    - Can only occur if a desired trait is heritable

    - Selective breeding studies of dogs

    - Cannot be ethically conducted with humans
  26. Major findings from behavioral genetic research
    • - personality traits
    • - attitudes and preferences
    • - drinking and smoking
  27. genotype-environment correlations:
    Passive
    Parents provide both genes and environment to children, yet children do nothing to obtain that environment
  28. genotrype-environement correlations:
    reactive
    Parents (or others) respond to children differently depending on the child’s genotype
  29. genotype-environment correlations: active
    Person with particular genotype seeks out a particular environment

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