Card Set Information
The functional unit of the kidney
The structure responsible for urine formation
The presence of large protein in the urine
Produced by the kidneys to maintain normal RBC volume
Where and how does erythropoietin function?
In the bone marrow
Stimulates the RBC production and maturation, and prolongs life of mature RBC
Clients with alterations in kidney function are unable to produce enough erythropoietin and are prone to what?
The kidneys affect regulation of ____ and ____ by producing a substance that converts Vitamin D to its active form.
Calcium and Phosphate
These 4 brain structures influence bladder functioning.
The bladder holds as much as ____ mL of urine.
Desire to urinate usually occurs between ____ and ____ mL.
150 and 200mL
Conditions that affect the urine volume and quality are generally categorized in these 3 origins.
Decreased blood flow to and through the kidneys is categorized in this origin.
Categorized origin when there is disease conditions of renal tissue.
Categorized in the origin where there is an obstruction in the lower urinary tract that prevents flow of urine away from the kidney.
An increase in nitrogenous waste in blood, marked fluid and electrolyte abnormalities, nausea, vomiting, headache, and coma are signs and symptoms of this syndrome.
2 Types of Dialysis
Medication administered for life to prevent the body from rejecting a transplanted organ.
Awakening 1 or more times a night to void
Excessive output of urine
Output decreads despite normal intake
Drinks that contain caffeine increase urine formation called..
The stress response releases this hormone which increase water reabsorption
Antidiurectic Hormone (ADH)
Stress elevates this hormone which causes retention of Sodium and Water.
What color does Pyridium turn urine?
Amitriptyline causes urine to become this color..
Green or Blue
What color doe levodopa turn urine?
Black or Brown
What is the most common HAI?
Most common causative pathogen for UTIs
Bacteria in the urine
Bacteria in the bloodstream
Which gender is more at risk for UTIs?
Which gender is more at risk for infection-related renal disease?
Residual urine becomes more ______ and is an ideal spot for microorganism growth
Pain or burning with urination
Normal urine production if ___ to ___ L/day
Urine is approximately ___% water and ___% solutes
Anticholinergics (atropine) and antihistamines may cause _________
By assessing skin turgor and oral mucosa the nurse is gathering data about what?
The clients hydration
What position is best when examining a females urethral meatus?
Vaginitis is common in older women due to the decrease in what?
An hourly output of less than ___mL for more than 2 hours is cause for concern
Urine clarity may be cloudy and foamy from what?
Increased protein levels
Urine clarity my be cloudy and thick from these two things
Bacteria and WBC
Urine has a sweet and fruity smell when there is acetone or acetoacetic acid present and is commonly found in patients with..
Diabetes Mellitus and starvation
Three types of urine tests
3 Guidelines for a Urinalysis
Examine specimen within 2 hours
1st voided specimen of the day
Can do some of the tests with special reagent strips
The weight or degree of concentration of a substance compared with an equal volume of water.
This test is used when the results of a specific gravity test are in question.
This test take approximately 24-48 hours. A broad-sprectrum antibiotic is ordered to determine which antibiotic is the most effective.
Normal pH of urine
This type of incontinence in involuntary but somewhat predictable when you reach a certain volume and is common in patients with spinal cord injuries.
Specific gravity of urine should be between ____ and ____
1.0053 and 1.030
When collecting a specimen from an indwelling catheter, how many mL should you obtain?
This test is used to measure levels of adrenocortical steroids or hormones, creatine clearance, or protein quantity.
This procedure views the collecting ducts and renal pelvis and outlines the ureters, bladder, and urethra.
The procedure determines the bladder muscle function and evaluates the cause of urinaryincontinence.
Procedure with direct visualization, specimen collection, and/or treatment of interior bladder or urethra.
This procedure visualizes the renal arteries to detect narrowing or occlusion.
Angiography or Arteriogram
These drugs supress bladder contrations aand reduce incontinence caused by bladder irritation.
This medicine treats men with overflow incontinence due to enlarged prostate.
Clients with catheters should have a daily intake of ____-____mL