Urinary Elimination

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Samilou
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71136
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Urinary Elimination
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2011-03-06 19:30:01
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Urinary Elimination
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Chapter 45
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  1. The functional unit of the kidney
    Nephron
  2. The structure responsible for urine formation
    Glomerulus
  3. The presence of large protein in the urine
    Proteinuria
  4. Produced by the kidneys to maintain normal RBC volume
    Erythropoietin
  5. Where and how does erythropoietin function?
    • In the bone marrow
    • Stimulates the RBC production and maturation, and prolongs life of mature RBC
  6. Clients with alterations in kidney function are unable to produce enough erythropoietin and are prone to what?
    Anemia
  7. The kidneys affect regulation of ____ and ____ by producing a substance that converts Vitamin D to its active form.
    Calcium and Phosphate
  8. These 4 brain structures influence bladder functioning.
    • Cerebral cortex
    • Brain stem
    • Thalamus
    • Hypothalamus
  9. The bladder holds as much as ____ mL of urine.
    600mL
  10. Desire to urinate usually occurs between ____ and ____ mL.
    150 and 200mL
  11. Conditions that affect the urine volume and quality are generally categorized in these 3 origins.
    • Prerenal
    • Renal
    • Postrenal
  12. Decreased blood flow to and through the kidneys is categorized in this origin.
    Prerenal
  13. Categorized origin when there is disease conditions of renal tissue.
    Renal
  14. Categorized in the origin where there is an obstruction in the lower urinary tract that prevents flow of urine away from the kidney.
    Postrenal
  15. An increase in nitrogenous waste in blood, marked fluid and electrolyte abnormalities, nausea, vomiting, headache, and coma are signs and symptoms of this syndrome.
    Uremic Syndrome
  16. 2 Types of Dialysis
    • Peritoneal
    • Hemodialysis
  17. Medication administered for life to prevent the body from rejecting a transplanted organ.
    Immunosuppressives
  18. Awakening 1 or more times a night to void
    Nocturia
  19. Excessive output of urine
    Polyuria
  20. Output decreads despite normal intake
    Oliguria
  21. Drinks that contain caffeine increase urine formation called..
    Diuresis
  22. The stress response releases this hormone which increase water reabsorption
    Antidiurectic Hormone (ADH)
  23. Stress elevates this hormone which causes retention of Sodium and Water.
    Aldosterone
  24. What color does Pyridium turn urine?
    Orange-Rust
  25. Amitriptyline causes urine to become this color..
    Green or Blue
  26. What color doe levodopa turn urine?
    Black or Brown
  27. What is the most common HAI?
    UTI
  28. Most common causative pathogen for UTIs
    E. coli
  29. Bacteria in the urine
    Bacteriuria
  30. Bacteria in the bloodstream
    Urosepsis
  31. Which gender is more at risk for UTIs?
    Females
  32. Which gender is more at risk for infection-related renal disease?
    Males
  33. Residual urine becomes more ______ and is an ideal spot for microorganism growth
    Alkaline
  34. Pain or burning with urination
    Dysuria
  35. Normal urine production if ___ to ___ L/day
    1-2L
  36. Urine is approximately ___% water and ___% solutes
    • 95%
    • 5%
  37. Anticholinergics (atropine) and antihistamines may cause _________
    Urinary retention
  38. By assessing skin turgor and oral mucosa the nurse is gathering data about what?
    The clients hydration
  39. What position is best when examining a females urethral meatus?
    Dorsal recumbent
  40. Vaginitis is common in older women due to the decrease in what?
    Estrogen
  41. An hourly output of less than ___mL for more than 2 hours is cause for concern
    30mL
  42. Urine clarity may be cloudy and foamy from what?
    Increased protein levels
  43. Urine clarity my be cloudy and thick from these two things
    Bacteria and WBC
  44. Urine has a sweet and fruity smell when there is acetone or acetoacetic acid present and is commonly found in patients with..
    Diabetes Mellitus and starvation
  45. Three types of urine tests
    • Urinalysis
    • Specific gravity
    • Urine culture
  46. 3 Guidelines for a Urinalysis
    • Examine specimen within 2 hours
    • 1st voided specimen of the day
    • Can do some of the tests with special reagent strips
  47. The weight or degree of concentration of a substance compared with an equal volume of water.
    Specific gravity
  48. This test is used when the results of a specific gravity test are in question.
    Osmolality test
  49. This test take approximately 24-48 hours. A broad-sprectrum antibiotic is ordered to determine which antibiotic is the most effective.
    Urine Culture
  50. Normal pH of urine
    4.6-8.0
  51. This type of incontinence in involuntary but somewhat predictable when you reach a certain volume and is common in patients with spinal cord injuries.
    Reflex incontinence
  52. Specific gravity of urine should be between ____ and ____
    1.0053 and 1.030
  53. When collecting a specimen from an indwelling catheter, how many mL should you obtain?
    3-5mL
  54. This test is used to measure levels of adrenocortical steroids or hormones, creatine clearance, or protein quantity.
    Timed specimen
  55. This procedure views the collecting ducts and renal pelvis and outlines the ureters, bladder, and urethra.
    IVP
  56. The procedure determines the bladder muscle function and evaluates the cause of urinaryincontinence.
    Urodynamic testing
  57. Procedure with direct visualization, specimen collection, and/or treatment of interior bladder or urethra.
    Endoscopy/Cystoscopy
  58. This procedure visualizes the renal arteries to detect narrowing or occlusion.
    Angiography or Arteriogram
  59. These drugs supress bladder contrations aand reduce incontinence caused by bladder irritation.
    • Vesicare
    • Ditropan
  60. This medicine treats men with overflow incontinence due to enlarged prostate.
    tamsulosin (Flomax)
  61. Clients with catheters should have a daily intake of ____-____mL
    2000-2500mL/day

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