Renal Physiology 10 - BACKExam

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jdonaldson
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7115
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Renal Physiology 10 - BACKExam
Updated:
2010-02-17 09:23:17
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renal physiology 10 usp james donaldson tarloff
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Difficult questions from the back exams
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  1. Normal K+ intake is about 100 mEq/day. If a healthy patient increases K+ intake to 200 mEq/day, which of the following may be expected to occur?
    A.) Hyperosmolarity
    B.) Hyperkalemia
    C.) Both
    D.) Neither
    • D.) Neither
    • * A healthy person usually ingests more solutes than the body needs. In this case, the high [K+]plasma would stimulate aldosterone, which would increase K+ secretion and return levels to normal.
  2. After a 24 hour fast with neither food nor water consumed, plasma concentrations of which of the following hormones will be increased?
    A.) Angio. II
    B.) ADH
    C.) Both
    D.) Neither
    • C.) Both
    • Plasma volume will be low. Angiotensin II will be stimulated by the low volume (and resulting low MAP). ADH will be stimulated by Angio. II.
  3. Some malignant tumors secrete ADH. Consequences of hypersecretion of ADH include:
    A.) Neither
    B.) Both
    C.) Hyponatremia
    D.) Metabolic acidosis
    C.) Hyponatremia
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  4. Some adrenal gland tumors result in oversecretion of aldosterone. In the presence of persistently elevated plasma concentrations of aldosterone, one would expect plasma sodium concentrations would be:
    A.) Elevated
    B.) Normal
    C.) Depressed
    • B.) Normal
    • "Under normal circumstances, aldosterone does not contribute to regulation of ECF fluid sodium concentration."
  5. Which segments of the nephron secrete hydrogen ions?
    • 1.) 80 - 90% of bicarb. reabsorptino and H+ secretion occurs in proximal tubules
    • 2.) Collecting Ducts? (Type A and B intercalated cells)
    • ???????
  6. In a patient with a renin-secreting tumor, which of the following symptoms would be expected?
    A.) Hypokalemia
    B.) Elevated BP
    C.) Both
    D.) Neither
    B.) Elevated BP
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  7. Secretion of which of the following hormones will be stimulated following ingestion of a salt load?
    A.) ADH
    B.) Angiotensin II
    C.) Both
    D.) Neither
    • A.) ADH
    • Angiotensin is concerned with MAP.
    • ADH is concerned with osmolarity and MAP.
  8. Normal Na+ intake is about 100 mEq/day. If a patient decreases Na+ intake to 10 mEq/day, which of the following may occur?
    A.) Hyponatremia
    B.) Hyperkalemia
    C.) Both
    D.) Neither
    • D. Neither
    • Daily requirement for salt is only 10-20 mEq/day.
  9. What is the equation for filtration fraction?
    FF = GFR / RPF
  10. Filtration fraction in the kidneys is normally 20%. If it suddenly increases to 25%, this change could be due to:
    A.) An increased GFR
    B.) A decreased RPF
    C.) Either
    D.) Neither
    C.) Either
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  11. In the presence of ADH, the tubule segment responsible for removing the smallest amount or % of H2O from the tubule is the:
    A.) Proximal tubule
    B.) Descending Loop of Henle
    C.) Thick Ascending Loop of Henle
    D.) Medullary Collecting Duct
    • C.) Thick ascending loop of henle
    • It is impermeable to water.
  12. Secretion of the which of the following hormones would be elevated in a patient experiencing hyperkalemia?
    A.) Angiotensin II
    B.) Aldosterone
    C.) Both
    D.) Neither
    • B.) Aldosterone
    • Angiotensin II is not stimulated by potassium.
    • Aldo is stimulated by potassium AND angiotensin II.
  13. A patient is hypotensive and complaining of extreme thirst. Circulating plasma levels of which of the following hormones would likely be elevated?
    A.) ADH
    B.) Aldosterone
    C.) Both
    D.) Neither
    • C.) Both
    • In response to the low MAP, angiotensin II would be produced. Angio II would stimulate ADH to retain water and raise MAP, and would also stimulate Aldo to retain Na+ to help maintain osmolarity.
  14. In emphysema, gas exchange is impaired. An emphysema patient's pH is found to be 7.32. The most likely explanation is:
    A.) Elevated CO2 concentration
    B.) Elevated bicarb concentration
    C.) Both
    D.) Neither
    • A.) Elevated CO2
    • Elevated bicarb would lead to a decrease in H+. An increase in CO2 would cause both an increase in H+ and bicarb. However, the question asks what the cause is - increased bicarb is a result, not a cause. Therefore, the only answer is CO2. The impaired gas exchange would inhibit the body from getting rid of CO2.
  15. In acidosis the kidneys secrete (acidic, basic) urine. In alkalosis, they secrete (acidic, basic) urine.
    • 1.) Acidic - as H+ protons are being secreted to bring pH back to normal
    • 2.) Basic - as the body retains H+ protons

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