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What is the process associated with health education?
- Planned opportunities to learn about health (goals, objectives,activity,criteria)
- Occurs at a given setting at a certain point of time
- Sequential program
- Concepts introduced at appropriate learning levels
- Comprehensive program
- Aspects of health are interrelated
- All affect quality of life
- Interaction between teacher and learner
Is a process where an individual or program meets specefic standards set by the credentialing body and is recoganized.
A process by which a recoganized professional body evaluates an entire college or university professional program.
Process by which an agency or Government grants permission to individuals to practice a given profession.
Process by which professional organization grants recoganition to an individual who upon completion of cmopetency can demonestrate predetermined standard of performance granted to an individual.
Who is president of SOPHE and what was her goal?
Helen Cleary, she wanted to credential programs or individuals. They had to find out if those who practiced health education had enough in common with each other to develope one set of standards.
What was the purpose of the role delineation project?
- School health and community health educators talked with each other
- Similar concepts applied in different settings with different terminology
- 1980 study on the role of health educators
What is the eligibility for the NCHEC
- A degree from accredited university
- An official transcript ( major in health education)
- Or official transcript that reflects 25 semester hours ( course work addressing 7 responsibilities deliniated in frame work)
What are the three accrediting bodies for NCHEC?
- National commision for the accreditation of teacher education
- Council on education for public health
- SOPHE/ AAHE
What are the seven responsibilities of a health educator?
- Assess needs, assets and capacity for health education
- Plan health education
- Implement health education
- Conduct evaluation
- Administer health education
- Serve as a health education resource
- Communicate and advocate for health
What is defenition of health from WHO
A state of compelete physical, mental and social well being and not merely the absence of diseas and infirmity
What is the more dynamic definition of health?
a dynamic state or condition of the human organism that is multi-dminesional in nature, a resource of living and results from persons interactions with and adaptations to his or her environment
What are determinants of health
- Quality of Medical care
What are social determinant of health?
- Race and ethnicity
- Social support ( very important factor)
- Work conditions
This term is the most inclusive term. What we do as a society to assure the conditions in which people can be healthy( IOM)
Health status of a defined group of people and actions and conditions to promote, protect and preserve their health.
The health status of people who are not organized and have no identity as a group and the actions and conditions to promote, protect and preserve their health.
What does the term Community mean in terms of health?
Group of people who have common characteristis, can be defined by location, race, age, ethnicity, interest
What are some characteristics of community:
- Common symbol system
- Shared values
- Mutual influence
- Shared needs
- Shared emotional connection
What are the values of community?
- Trust (openness, curiosity,respect)
- Tolerance(confident expectations that people will act honestly)
What are the factors affecting community health?
- Physical factors ( community size, gerography)
- Social and cultural factors ( traditions)
- Community organization (moblizing resources)
- Individual behavior
What were some health related practices that chinese people engaged in 2100-200 BC?
- Paid attention to environmental health (wells for drinking, protection of drinking water)
- Engaged in personal health hygine and preventive medicine ( did not eat smelly food, made tea with boiling water, herbal medicine)
What health practices egyptions were involved in 2000 to 100 BC?
- Personal cleaning and baths
- Alcohol in moderation
- Hammurabi code of conduct
- Mosaic law ( weekly day of rest, certain permissible behaviors, extended what egyptions were working on)
Greeks and Romans (550 BC-500 AD)
- Greeks focused on the individual and Romans focused on the state.
- Greeks focused on the physical strength but did not focus on sanitation or the environment but Romans conducted community health projects ( census, street cleaning, public bath)
Middle and Dark ages (500-1500 AD)
- Year of the Plague
- This was more of spiritual era where people believed disease were because the spirit of human was being tormented or they were being punished for their sins
What are the health achivements of the Renissance era ( 1500-1700)
- Thinking more about nature of the world and the mankind
- payed more attention to who was sick
- Thought that disease was not caused by spiritual factors but because of the environmental factors
Measma theory suggests that:
Vapors and microorganisms in the air caused diseases.
What were the achivements of the 19th century?
- Chadwick report in england
- Shattuck report in US which marked the start of modern era of public health
- Bacteriology phase when cause of many bacterial diseases were discoverd
What were the main achievements of the 20th century?
- Leading cause of death became noninfectious disease
- Mean life expectancy 50
- Learned about vitamin deficiancy
- Poor dental health
- Death with pregnancy and child birth
Health resources developmental period includ:
- Social reform phase
- The great depression
- The post war years
Provided funds to improve quality of care in hospitals
occupational safety and protection of employee
What are the health concerns of 2000?
- Health care delivery( greatest community health challange)
- Environmental problems(pollution of air and water,disposal of waste)
- Lifestyle disease(hearth disease,cancer,stroke and chronic lower respiratory disease)
- Communicable disease(cross over disease from animals, use of pathogens for terrorism)
- Alcohol and other drug abuse(associated with unintentional injuries)
- Disasters(natural or human made
When was WHO health for all published?
When was Healthy people published?
What is healthy people
- The nation's health promotion and disease prevention agenda
- A roadmap to improve health using a 10 year plan
- Comprises three parts
- ** The surgeon general's report on health promotion and disease prevention
1990 Healthy People:
Five major goals for the nation that is organized across the life span and goals and objectives has priority areas
What are the 5 major goals of 1990 healthy people?
- Healthy infants(improve infants health and mortality, reduce # of low birth weights and birth defects)
- Healthy children
- Healthy young adults(reduce death among people ages 25 to 64, reducing heart attacks, reducing death from cancer, alcohol abuse and mental health)
- Healthy adults
- Healthy older adults(improve the health and QofL and reduce the average # of days of restricted activity, increase # of elders who can function independently and reduce premature deaths)
Healthy people of 1990 has 15 priority areas
- Preventive health services
- Health protection
- Health promotion
Public health reports:
- Published in 1983
- Described implementation plans for achieveing the health objectives for the nation
- Included strategies agencies could employ to help achieve the objectives
Goal of healthy people 2000:
- Reduce health disparities
- Achieve access to preventive health service for all americans
How many priority areas healthy people 2000 have?
- 22 priority areas
- Four broad categories:
- health promotion
- health protection
- preventive health services
What are criteria used for developing objectives?
- Supported by scientific evidence
- Important and understandable to broad audiance
- Relate to goals
- Prevention oriented
- Drive action
- Measureable range of outcomes
- Build on healthy people
What are the type of objectives?
- Measureable objectives providing direction for action (baseline data)
- Developmental objectives providing a vision for desired outcome or health status (baseline data unavailable)
What are the main goals of healthy people 2010 ? how many priority?
- Eliminate health disparity
- Increase quality and hears of healthy life
- ** 28 priority areas
Healthy people 2010 3 parts?
- Understanding and improving health
- Healthy people objectives for improving health
- Tracking healthy people 2010
Particular type of health difference that is closely linked with social and economic disadvantages. Difference in incidence, prevalance, mortality and burden of the disease and other adverse health condition
Entail special effort to who have experianced social or economic disadvantage.
Strength of healthy people 2010:
- Collaboration and consensus
- Wide array of diverse users
- Public access via internet
- Science and evidance based
- Data driven
- Measureable objective with targets
Challanges of healthy people:
- Balancing between encyclopedic approach and targeted effort
- Integration target setting across all areas
- Developing and funding of data sources
- Developing and implementatation plan
- Providing technical assistance
History of healthy people:
- based on the accomplishment of 4 previous healthy people.
- 1979: the surgeon general report
- 1990: promoting health preventing disease
- 2000: national health promotion and disease prevention
- 2010: objectives for improving health
What are the new topic areas for the healthy people 2020:
- Adolesent health
- Blood disorders
- Early and middle childhood
- Older adults
- Q of L
- Sleep health
- Health care associated with infections
What are the competencies that fall under Assessing Individual and Community Needs for Health Education?
- Access existing health-related data
- Collect health-related data
- Distinguish between behaviors that foster and hinder well-being
- Determine factors that influence learning
- Identify factors that foster or hinder the process of health education
- Infer needs for health education from obtained data
What are the competencies that fall under Planing Health Education Strategies, Interventions, and Programs ?
- Involve people and organizations in program planning
- Incorporate data analysis and principles of community organization
- Formulate appropriate and measurable program objectives
- Develop a logical scope and sequence plan for health education practice
- Competency E
- Design strategies, interventions, and programs consistent with specified objectives
- Select appropriate strategies to meet objectives
- Assess factors that affect implementation
What are competencies that fall under Implementing Health Education Strategies, Interventions, and Programs?
- Initiate a plan of action
- Demonstrate a variety of skills in delivering strategies, interventions, and programs
- Use a variety of methods to implement strategies, interventions, and programs
- Conduct training programs
What are the copmetencies that fall under Conducting Evaluation and Research Related to Health Education
- Develop plans for evaluation and research
- Review research and evaluation procedures
- Design data collection instruments
- Carry out evaluation and research plans
- Interpret results from evaluation and research
- Infer implications from findings for future health-related activities
What are the competencies falling under Administering Health Education Strategies, Interventions, and Programs
- Competency A
- Exercise organizational leadership
- Competency B
- Secure fiscal resources
- Competency C
- Manage human resources
- Competency D
- Obtain acceptance and support for programs
What are the competencies that fall under Serveing as a Health Education Resource Person
- Competency A
- Use health-related information resources
- Competency B
- Respond to requests for health information
- Competency C
- Select resource materials for dissemination
- Competency D
- Establish Consultative Relationships
What are the competencies that fall under Communicating and Advocate for Health and Health Education
- Analyze and respond to current and future needs in health education
- Apply a variety of communication methods and techniques
- Promote the health education profession individually and collectively
- Influence health policy to promote health
What are overrarching goals of healthy people 2020?
- Attaining high quality longer lives free of preventable diseases
- Achieve health equity and eliminate health disparities
- Create social and physical environments that promotes good health
- Promote quality of life
What is health field concept:
This concept is a concept that looks beyond biological factors that contribute to an individuals health. there are four other factors contributing to an individual's health environment, social facotrs, health care and biological
What is the elements of the systemic approach?
It tries to concentrate on interactions between elements and studies the effect of interactions for example healthy people goals, objectives, determinants of health and improved health status
What is the healthy people action model:
Interventions( policies, programs and information) these have outcomes that can be assesed, monitored evaluate and disseminated
What are the constructs of epidemiological model?
Agent, Host and Environment.
What are the elements of the Social ecological model?
Behavior, environment and host . In this construct we can have multiple factors contributing to multiple diseases.
What are major contributing factors to socio-ecological model?
What are some examples of the intrapersonal factors?
Attitude, behavior and skills
What are some exampls of the intrepersonal factors?
Relationships and social network
What are some examples of organizational factors?
Formal and informal rules
What are some examples of community factors?
Relationship among organizations
What are some examples of public policy?
Local, state and national laws
What are the components of the system thoery?
- Microsystem: family, peers
- Exosystem: school and community
- Macrosystem: political system, economy
Population health promotion:
- Model developed by Hamilton and Bhatti
- Concepts from Ottawa charter for health promotion and evidence based desision making
- Results in a focus on the right issues effective actions and sound findings
What are causative agens for diseases and injuries:
- Biological agens ( bacteria, viruses,fungi,protozoa)
- Chemical agents(food additives, pestiside, air pollutants)
- Physical agents(heat,light,noise)
What are the two classification of disease and health problems:
- Communicable(infectious) vs. Noncommunicable(noninfectious): can't be transmitted
- Acute ( 3 month or less) vs. chronic ( more than 3 month)
What are important skills for health educators?
- Community organizing
- Health promotion programming
What is community organizing?
A process through which communities are helped to identify common problems or goals , moblize their resources and develop and implement strategies for reaching goals ( those golas are collectively set)
Connection among people and socical networks, the reciprocity and trust among members
Community participation is a :
Participation and relevance:
Community organizing that starts where the people are and engages community members as equals
Relationships and structures within the community that promote coopration for mutual benefit
- People and organizations apply their skills and resources collectively to meet their needs
- People work to gain greater influence and control over determinants of their health and quality of life
What are assumptions of community organizing?
- Communities can develop the capacity to deal with their own problems
- People want to change
- People should participate in making, adjusting or controlling major changes taking place in their community
- Holistic approach ( not only looking at one condition) is better than fragmented approach
- Changes that is self-imposed or self developed has meaning and permance that imposed changes
- Democracy requireds cooperative participation
- People must learn necessary skills
- Communities may need help organizing to address their need
What are community organizing methods?
- Locality development
- Social planning
- Social action
What does locality development entail?
- A broad self help method
- Process oriented
- Consensus building and cooperation stressed
- Build group identity and sense of community
What is social planning ?
- Many people involved
- Skilled volunteers from the community
- Focus on problem solving ( Rational, Empirical,Task oriented)
What is social action?
- This step is very task oriented.
- It is a technique involving the redistribution of power and resources to disadvanteged segment of the population
- Allows institutional or community change
What is an infectious agent?
Bacteria, virus, fungi or parasite or their products that can cause disease
Signs and symptoms that give evidence of an infection
Physical manifestation of illness, injury or disease ( rapid pulse, low BP
- What the patient experiances
Interval from time of infection to when clinical signs of illness appear
Continious presence of disease in a geographical are
Person or animal not having enough resistance against infection to prevent contracting the disease
Ability of infectious agent to invade and damage tissue
Types of transmission:
- Direct ( immidiate transmission)
- Indirect (vector borne)
Ability of a biological agent to enter and grow in a host
Capability of a communicable disease agent to cause disease
Element that must be present in order for cause of disease to occur
Any susseptible organism invaded
all other factors that inhibit or promote disease
Chain of infection consist of:
- Pathogen: disease causing agent
- Reservoir: the habitat ( human, habitat, environment)
- Portal of exit: path by which agent leave the source
- Mode of transmission: direct, indirect( air borne, vector borne)
- Portal of entry: agent enter suseptible host
- New host: final link
- Complex etiologies
- Multicausation disease model
What are the components of the multicausation disease model?
- Personality and beliefs
- Behavioral choices
- ** similar to socio-ecological model and also a frame work of HP 2020
Coronary heart disease:
Damage to the coronary arteries #1 killer
Narrowing of the blood vessles resulting the build up of fatty deposits on the walls of the blood vessels
Blood supply to the brain is disrupted
Out of control growth and division of cells which develops into tumors #2 killer
Part of tumor break off and travel to the rest of the body
What are leading causes of death?
CHD, Cancer and Stroke
Planning for and taking of action to forestall the onset of disease( immunization)
Taking action during event(antibiotic)
Elimination of the disease
- Measures that forestall onset of illness( immunization)
- good health behavior
- health education and promotion
- access to medical services
- protection from environment
- Measure that leads to early diagnosis ( screening)
- mass screening
- case finding measure
- adequate health personal
- cancer screenings
- Measures that aim at rehabilitation ( physical therapy)
- understanding unmodifiable risks
- significant behavior or life style change
- rehab program