SPRING Top 200
Card Set Information
SPRING Top 200
Midterm- Slide Information
How many Americans does diabetes affect? How many Americans are undiagnosed?
What are the four different types of diabetes?
Describe Type 1 Diabetes
Results from beta cell destruction
Failure to produce insulin
5-10% of Americans
Diagnosed in children or young adults
Describe the presentation of Type 1 Diabetes
Describe Type 2 Diabetes
Results from a progressive insulin secretory defect on the background of insulin resistance
Most common form
Does not make enough or makes too much insulin
Describe the presentation of Type 2 Diabetes
May be asymptomatic
Describe Gestational Diabetes
Diabetes diagnosed during pregnancy
4% of all pregnant women
Often goes away after baby is born
Describe Type 1.5 Diabetes
Type 1 in someone older
Same presentation as Type 1 Diabetes
What is the range for pre-diabetes?
What is optimal range for fasting glucose levels?
70-110 mg / dL
What does A1c measure?
Glycosylated hemoglobin--average amount of glucose in the blood over the last 2 to 3 months
What is the goal range for A1c?
Glucose use requires the presence of _________
What cells produce insulin?
Pancreas beta cells
Describe what happens in the case of low blood sugar.
Low blood sugar--> pancreas releases glucagon from alpha cells--> liver releases glucose into blood--> normal blood levels
Describe what happens in the case of high blood sugar.
High blood glucose--> pancreas releases insulin from beta cells--> fat cells take in glucose from blood--> normal blood levels
What are other causes of diabetes?
Genetic defects in beta cell function or insulin action
Diseases of the exocrine pancreas (i.e. cystic fibrosis)
Drug or chemical induced
What are the criteria for diagnosing diabetes?
A1c > 6.5% OR
Fasting Blood Glucose > 126 mg/dL OR
2 hour plasma glucose > 200 mg/dL OR
A random plasma glucose > 200 mg/dL
What are the symptoms of hyperglycemia?
What are the symptoms of hypoglycemia?
Stimulates stress in the body
How can you treat hypoglycemia?
Use a glucagon kit
Is hyper- or hypoglycemia more dangerous in the short term?
How does alcohol affect your blood sugar?
Increases the risk of low blood sugar.
Liver will not produce any glucose until it has rid the body of all alcohol
Is insulin a hormone or protein?
How does Insulin affect blood glucose?
Binds to cells to allow glucose from the body to be absorbed--> reduces blood glucose
Why does insulin cause weight gain in some people?
Excess of insulin stimulates your fat cells to store more fat causing weight gain.
How do sulfonylureas affect blood sugar?
Increase insulin secretion
Reduce rate of glucose production
What are some adverse effects of sulfonylureas?
How do biguanides affect blood sugar?
Decreases glucose production
Increase sensitivity to insulin
What are the adverse effects of biguanides?
How do thiazolidinediones affect blood sugar?
Increases sensitivity to insulin
Decrease glucose production
How long does it take to see a maximum affect for Thiazolidinediones?
What else do Thiazolidinediones help?
Improves HDL and TG
What are the adverse effects of Thiazolidinediones?
What patients should not take Thiazolidinediones?
Patients with abnormal liver functions
Patients with CHF
How do alpha-glucosidase inhibitors affect blood sugar?
Delays uptake of glucose by blocking enzymes that digest glucose in the small intestine
Should alpha-glucosidase inhibitors be taken with or without food?
What are the adverse effects of alpha-glucosidase inhibitors?
Flatulence or abdominal discomfort
What are some examples of alpha-glucosidase inhibitors?
How do dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitors affect blood sugar?
Increase insulin secretion
Decrease glucose production
What lab values do dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitors affect and by how much?
: Decrease by 10-15 mg/dL
: Decrease by 0.5-0.6%
: Decrease by 50 mg/dL
What are adverse effects of DDP-IV Inhibitors?
GI side effects
How do meglitinides affect blood sugar?
Increase insulin production
Do meglitinides have a rapid or slow affect?
Rapid for a short duration
What are the adverse effects of meglitinides?
What are incretin mimetics?
Hormones in the gut which act on the pancreas to increase insulin production.
Increase B-cell growth/replication
What type of diabetes are treated with insulin mimetics?
What drugs sensitize the body to insulin and/or control hepatic glucose production?
What drugs stimulate the pancreas to make more insulin?
What drugs slow the absorption of glucose from the gut?
What drugs reduce glucose production?
What type of animals was insulin made from in the past?
Pork and Beef
What type of insulin can be given through an IV?
Describe the onset, peak, and duration of rapid acting insulin.
: 10-30 minutes
: 30 minutes-3 hours
: 3 to 5 hours
Describe the onset, peak, and duration of short acting insulin.
: 30-60 minutes
: 2-5 hours
: Up to 8 hours
Describe the onset, peak, and duration of intermediate-acting insulin.
: 1-2 hours
: 4 to 12 hours
: 16-24 hours
Describe the onset, peak, and duration of long acting insulin.
: 1-5 hours
: No clear peak
: Up to 24 hours
What are the three types of rapid acting insulin?
Insulin aspart (NovoLog)
Insulin glulisine (Apidra)
Insulin lispro (Humalog)
What are the types of short-acting insulin?
Insulin Regular (Humulin R, Novolin R)
What type of insulin is intermediate acting?
Insulin NPH human (Humulin N, Novolin N)
What types of insulin are long acting insulin?
Insulin glargine (Lantus)
Insulin detemir (Levemir)
What do anti-inflammatory medications treat?
Mild to moderate pain
May affect platelets
What do NSAIDs do?
What do most NSAIDs inhibit?
Cox-1 and Cox-2 enzymes
What does COX stand for? What does it do?
The enzyme "cycloxgenase"
It catalyzes the conversion of free essential fatty acids to prostaglandins.
What are prostaglandins? Are they good or bad?
Prostaglandins are mediators in inflammatory reactions. Can be good or bad.
What does inhibition of COX do?
Provides relief from symptoms of inflammation and pain
Is COX 1 good or bad?
Where is COX 1 produced?
What does COX 1 do?
Speeds up the production of prostaglandalins.
Which COX promotes the production of the natural mucosa lining that protects the inner stomach and preserves it's integrity?
What is mediated by COX 1?
Is COX 2 good or bad?
What has increase production in the presence of inflammation and tissue injury?
What does COX 2 do?
Leads to prostaglandin synthesis involved in pain and inflammation.
What are the two main COX inhibitors?
Are NSAIDs selective?
What are the main adverse effects of NSAIDs?
What does "dual insult" refer to?
NSAIDs irritate the gastric mucosa due to the acidity of the medicine as well as inhibiting COX 1.
What can be caused by use of NSAIDs?
What are NSAIDs commonly used for?
What do all NSAIDs have in common?
Gastric side effects (less in COX-2 selective)
Can cause renal toxicity
What is the pediatric dosing for Motrin?
6 months or older:
Temp < 102.5
: 5 mg/kg/DOSE
Temp > 102.5
: 10 mg/kg/DOSE
Dosed every 6-8 hours
What is the maximum dose for Motrin?
Explain the body's response to a fever.
Hypothalamus receives info about the body temp from thermosensitive neurons in the CNS and skin.
Temperature levels increase and trigger physiologic and behavioral mechanisms to return temperature to normal such as
: sweating, vasodilation, increased peripheral blood flow, hyperventilation
What can cause a fever?
Bacterial or viral infections.
What is the most common symptom of a disease in children?
1 out of 5 ER visits
20-30% of MD calls
What is the indication of antipyretic therapy?
Aid patient in discomfort and parent anxiety.
What is the range for a mild fever?
What is the range for a high fever?
What is the range for a very high fever?
rare but serious complications can occur
What do you tell a patient if their child has a fever > 100 and are 2 months old or younger?
How many days should a child go with a fever before calling MD?
What can be caused if aspirin is used in children under 16?
In what patients is aspirin contraindicated?
Pregnant: promote premature closure of the ductus arteriosus in the fetus
What is the usual adult dosage of aspirin?
81 mg to 325 mg
What are two COX 2 inhibitors that have been withdrawn from the market? Why?
Increased risk of cardiovascular disorders
What is the dosing of tylenol in children younger than 12?
10-15 mg/kg/dose every 4 hours as needed
DO NOT EXCEED 5 DOSES IN 24 HOURS
What is the adult dosage of tylenol?
235-650 mg every 4 hours
1000 mg tid/qid
: 4 g/ day
What is allergic rhinitis?
Highly prevalent allergen-induced upper airway inflammatory disease
Can be seasonal or year round
What is the most common atopic disease in the US?
What factors increase your risk of allergic rhinitis?
Early food exposure
Indoor allergen exposure
Parental allergic disorder
Is there a cure for allergies?
What is the goal of allergy treatment?
Increase patient's QOL
What types of treatment are available for allergic rhinitis?
How do H-1 antihistamines work?
Bind to and stabilize the H-1 receptor
Inhibit mast cell and basophil mediator release
Reduces sneezing, itching, ocular irritation
What is released during an allergic reaction? How do H-1s help with this?
H-1 antagonists reduce or eliminate the effects of histamine
What are some typical anti-cholineric effects?
Stops cramping of smooth muscle
Does 1st generation anti histamines have more or less adverse effects?
Can 1st generation anti-histamines cross the BBB?
What are some CNS adverse effects of 1st generation antihistamines?
Do 1st generations have a short or long half-life?
Short (dosed every 4-6 hours)
What are some examples of first generation anti-histamines?
What type of H-1 antihistamines are non-sedating?
Do 2nd generation H-1 antihistamines cross the BBB?
No, poor penetration. Therefore, less CNS effects
What are some examples of 2nd generation H-1 antihistamines?
What are some indications of H-1 antihistamines?
Allergic dermatological conditions
Pruritus (insect bites)
Anaphylactic or anaphylactoic reactions
Nausea and vomiting
Sedation (1st generation)
Is a cough a symptom or disease?
What can cause a cough?
Allergies and asthma
Sinusitis leading to postnatal drip
Exposure to secondhand smoke
Exposure to air pollutants
What are some agents that are used to treat a cough?
What are the FDA recommendations on cough medicines?
Not for children < 4 y.o.a. UNLESS under guidance of healthcare professionals
How does guaifenesin help treat a cough?
Expectorant-- loosens phlegm
Increases the lubrication of your lungs allowing for a productive cough and decreased chest congestion
Many dosage forms
How does Codeine (and it's derivatives) help treat a cough?
Binds to opiate receptors in the CNS, causes cough suppression by direct central action in the medulla and produces a generalized CNS depression
What type of muscles do muscle relaxants work on? Why are they used?
Relax striated muscles (pain management)
Skeletal muscles (relief of spasticity in neuromuscular disease or minor strain injuries)
What are some examples of muscle relaxants?
Describe Alzheimer's Disease
Progressive brain disorder
Most common form of dementia-- destroys brain cells
Advances at different rates
: 3-20 years
What are some functions that are affected by Alzheimer's?
Ability to learn
Ability to carry out daily activities
What is the hallmark symptom of Alzheimer's?
What are treatment options for Alzheimer's?
Uncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist
What do cholinesterase inhibitors do? What are some examples?
Increase levels of Acetylcholine
Why are cholinesterase inhibitors unable to work for an extended period of time?
Because our bodies eventually stop producing acetylcholine
What is an example of a NMDA receptor antagonist? What is it's MOA?
MOA unknown--> regulates glutamate which is responsible for cell death
What are common causes of headaches?
What types of headache may or may not be accompanied by auras?
What are examples of vascular headaches?
What is an example of a muscular headache?
What is an example of a cervicogenic headache?
What is an example of a traction headache?
What is an example of a inflammatory headache?
What are some treatment options for headaches?
Lower your body temperature
What are some types of medications used to treat headaches?
What type of receptor are triptans agonists of?
What specific types of headaches are triptans used to treat?
What is the MOA of triptans?
Bind to serotonin receptors in the brain
Inhibit pro-inflammatory neuropeptide release
What are some examples of triptan drugs?
What are some common stomach disorders?
What is the definition of GERD?
symptoms or mucosal damage produced by the abnormal relux of gastric contents into the esophagus
Why can gastric content damage the lining of the esophagus?
Regurgitated liquid usually contains acid and pepsin that are produced by the stomach.
Why is GERD common in pregnancy?
Increased hormone production
Growing fetus can cause pressure
What are the 3 categories of GERD?
Non-erosive reflux disease
What are the treatment goals of GERD?
Decrease the frequency of recurrent disease
Promote healing of mucosal injury
What are treatment options for GERD?
What is the LES and it's function in GERD?
It is a specialized ring of muscle that surrounds the lower most end of the esophagus and it's function is to prevent reflux.
Laxity of LES
: easier opening of the LES allows for a greater backward flow of acid
What are the typical symptoms of GERD?
Heartburn (painful) HALLMARK
What are some atypical symptoms of GERD?
Metallic taste in mouth
What are some lifestyle changes that can be made to treat GERD?
Upper body elevation while sleeping
Smaller and less fatty meals
Earlier evening meals
Avoiding injurious foods
How do antacids treat GERD?
Neutralize acid in the stomach by mixing with HCL to form water and salt. Reduces gastric pH
How does Gaiscovn (Alginic acid) work?
Protective barrier that floats on the surface of gastric contents
What are the adverse effects of antacids with a Mg base? Al? Ca?
Calcium= stimulates gastrin release
What is the indication for H2 Antagonists?
Treatment of mild to moderate GERD (mainly heart burn)
What is the MOA of H2 antagonists?
Bind H2 receptors on parietal cells preventing histamine-induced activation
When should a H2 antagonist be taken?
30 minutes before a meal
Do H2 antagonist heal inflammation?
How long should H2 antagonists be used?
12 weeks of therapy
improvement in 60% of patients
Which H2 antagonist can be used in children under 1 y.o.a.?
Which H2 antagonists should be adjusted in renal insufficiency?
Pepcid, Tagamet, Axid
Which H2 antagonist is not usually used due to drug interactions?
What are PPI used to treat?
Moderate to severe GERD, May strengthen LES
What is the MOA of PPI?
Blocks the secretion of acid into the stomach by acid-secreting parietal cells
Can the PPI help heal the esophagus?
Yes-- protects the esophagus so it can heal
When should PPIs be taken?
1 hour before meals
Due to GI irritation, patients should avoid what when using PPIs?
Which PPIs can be sprinkled over applesauce?
Prilosec, Nexium, Prevacid
Which PPIs must be swallowed whole?
Which PPI can not be switched between 20 mg and 40 mg?
Which PPI was formerly known as "Kapidex?"
What are ulcers? How are they formed?
A break in the lining of the esophagus that occurs in an area of inflammation.
Acid reflux damages the cells that line the esophagus causing inflammation. IF damage is severe, ulcers form. May erode into the esophageal blood vessels and give rise to bleeding.
How can H-pylori affect the stomach?
It is a bacteria that infects the mucus lining of the stomach and upper intestines that can cause ulcers and gastritis.
2/3 of the world are infected but asymptomatic
What are the primary treatment options for H-pylori?
Clarithromycin Triple Therapy x 14 days:
Amoxicillin OR metronidazole
Bismuth Quadruple Therapy x 10-14 days
PPIF or H2 Antagonist
Describe the pathophysiology of Nausea and Vomiting.
Emetogenic stimuli to chemoreceptor trigger zone (CTZ) through blood or CSF
Vestibular stimuli--> motion sickness
Direct irritation of GI tract sending stimuli to vomiting center in brain and CTZ
CNS associated--> psychiatric disorders, stress, anticipation
What medications can be used to treat N/V?
What is the MOA of Phenergan?
H1 antagonist, anticholinergic
: PO, IM, PR
What is the MOA of Zofran?
: PO, IV
Commonly used for chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting
How do promotility drugs help with stomach disorders?
Increase the pressure in the lower esophageal sphincter and strengthen the contracts of the esophagus--> Speeds up emptying of the stomach
Do pro-motility drugs help heal inflammation?
When should pro-motility drugs be taken?
30 minutes before meals and at bedtime
What type of drug is Reglan (metoclopramide)? What are it's indications? Adverse Effects?
GERD, nausea/vomiting, gastroparesis
: weakness, somnolence, tardive dyskinesia, neuroleptic malignant syndrome
What is "a skeletal disorder characterized by loss of bone tissue, deterioration of bone architecture, and increased bone fragility leading to increased risk of fractures."
Are men or women more likely to suffer from osteoporosis?
What areas are of most concern in osteoporosis?
Hips and spine
What are the most important risk factors for fractures?
Low bone mineral density
History of adult fracture
What are some complications of fractures?
What are the classifications of osteoporosis?
Primary (unknown cause)
Secondary ( disease related, medication induced)
What three factors cause a variation in prevalence?
What are some risk factors for osteoporosis?
Too much caffeine
White or Asian ethnicity
What are some prevention or treatment options for osteoporosis?
Adequate calcium and Vit D intake
Limit alcohol and caffeine
Bone density test and medication
What is the daily calcium intake and vitamin D intake for ages 1-3, 4-8, 9-18, 19-50, 51+?
What are some treatment goals for osteoporosis?
Prevent fractures by improving bone strength and reducing the risk of falling and injury
Relieve symptoms of fractures and skeletal deformity
Maximize physical function
What are some bone formation modifiers?
Biphosphonates (first line)
SERM (post menopausal women only)
How do biphosphonates work? What are some adverse effects?
Inhibit osteoclast activity and reduce bone resorption and turnover.
Heartburn, indigestion, jaw bone pain
How should biphosphonates be taken?
First thing in the morning
With a full glass of water
Wait at least 30 minutes after to eat
Remain sitting or standing for at least 30 minutes
Which biphosphonate medications can be taken by IV?
Which biphosphonates are used to treat ostoporosis in men?
What patients should not use biphosphonates?
Those with renal insufficiency
Which biphosphonate is available with a combination of Vit D?
Which biphosphonate differs and should be taken 60 minutes before a meal and before laying down?
What type of medicine is Raloxifene (Evista)? What is it indicated for? What are some common side effects?
Osteoporosis, Breast Cancer, Hormone Replacement Therapy
Hot flashes, night sweats, leg cramps, blood clots
What are some other examples of SERMs?
What is menopause? When does it commonly occur?
Permanent cessation of menses due to dysfunction of the ovaries.
Between the ages of 47-53
What are some common symptoms of menopause?
Hot flashes, night sweats, abnormal uterine bleeding, vaginal dryness, incontinence, sleep disturbances, mood changes, depression, sexual changes, problems with concentration and memory
What are some examples of Estrogen derivatives?
Premarin (Conjugates Estrogens; pregnant mare urine)
What are estrogen derivatives indicated for?
Relief of moderate to severe vasomotor symptoms
What are some side effects of estrogen derivatives?
Women ______ a uterus cannot use unopposed estrogen because of the increased risk of endometrial cancer.
What women should not use an estrogen derivative?
Those with a history of breast cancer.
What are the indications of oral contraceptives?
Regulate menstrual cycle
Oral contraceptives are a combined form of what?
Progestin and estrogens
Prevents ovulation and alters endometrium lining
What risks are associated with oral contraceptives?
Women with pre-existing CV disease or risk
: DVT, pulmonary embolism, stroke, MI
Higher estrogen containing pills may increase risk of breast cancer
What are some benefits of birth control?
Reduce ovarian cancer risk by 40%
Reduce endometrial cancer risk by 50%
What is polycystic ovarian syndrome?
A hormone imbalance leading to overproduction of follicles each month by the ovaries with producing an egg.
Irregular/no periods, depression, excessive weight gain, acne, abnormal hair growth, infertility
Goes hand in hand with insulin resistance
Body begins to make more androgens
What is endometriosis?
When endometrial tissue develops outside of the uterus. Tissue implants -> proliferates-> thickens-> sheds with each menstrual cycle-> tissue becomes trapped-> scar tissue formation
: pelvic pain, infertility
What are some estrogenic compounds?
What are some progestational compounds?
What women should use progestational compounds?
Those with a uterus.
What is often associated with "nausea, breast tenderness, increased BP, headache, melasma"?
Too much estrogen
What are the common complains with too little estrogen?
Early or mid-cycle breakthrough bleeding, increased spotting, hypomennorhea
What are some common complains of progestin?
Breast tenderness, headache, fatigue, changes in mood
What is often associated with " increased appetite, weight gain, acne, oily skin, hirsutism, increased LDL, decreased HDL"?
Too much androgen
What is urinary incontinence? What increases the incidence of UI?
Involuntary loss of urine
: Females, Obesity (BMI > 30), Advanced Age (> 50), Poor function status
What are some acute causes of UI?
What are some chronic causes of UI?
Urinary tract abnormality
Increased during menstrual cycle
What are the 5 types of UI?
Urge (Overactive Bladder)
: urinary urgency with increased frequency and nocturia, with or without UI-- Increase bladder muscle contraction or nerve problems
: loss of urine or exertion, sneezing, or coughing; bladder pressure > urethral pressure
What are treatment options of UI?
What are Kegel exercises?
They tone the pelvic muscles that stop the flow of urine when you urinate (pubococcygeus muscles).
Squeeze and hold up to10 seconds x 20 reps tid
Contract ONLY pelvic muscles
What medications urge UI?
What medications that urge incontinence are antimuscarinic?
What medications that urge incontinence are selective antimuscarinics?
Detrol/ Detrol LA (high affinity for bladder receptors)
Enablex (highly selective M3>M2)
What is tolterodine indicated for? What is it's MOA? How should it be administered? What are it's AE?
Urge Incontinence/Overactive Bladder
: competitive muscarinic receptor antagonist that decreases bladder contractions, detrusor pressure, and incomplete voiding
Administer once (ER) or twice (IR) daily (adjust in hepatic/renal insufficiency)
: dry mouth, headache, constipation, blurred vission, dizziness
May take weeks or months for full efficacy
What is BPH?
Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia
Enlarged prostate that presses on the urethra leading to urination and bladder problems
What are symptoms of BPH?
Dribbling at the end of urination
Incomplete bladder emptying
What are lifestyle changes that can help treat BPH?
urinate with initial urge
avoid alcohol and caffeine
avoid drinking close to bedtime
avoid OTC decongestants/antihistamines
What are pharmacologic treatments for BPH?
Alpha 1 Blockers
5 alpha reductase Inhibitors
What are examples of Alpha 1 Blockers?
What are examples of 5 alpha reductase inhibitors?
What is Tamsulosin indicated for? What are some common side effects? How should it be taken?
Treatment of symptomatic BPH alone or in combination with 5 alpha reductase inhibitor
: orthostatic hypotension, dizziness, weakness, decreased libido, insomnia, rhinitis, abnormal ejaculations, ejaculatory problems, intraoperative floppy iris syndrome
Administer 30 minutes after the same meal each day
What is Finasteride indicated for? What are common side effects? What is the pregnancy risk category?
Treatment of symptomatic BPH alone or in combination with an alpha adrenergic blocker (increase symptom relief and increase urine flow rate)
: erectile dysfunction, decreased libido, increase breast size/tenderness, rash
: pregnant females should not handle crushed or broken tablets
What is ED?
Inability to achieve or maintain an erection
Affects 65% of men between 40-70 years of age
Describe the pathophysiology of ED
arousal -> Ach released from pelvic nerve-> NO released from cavernosal nerves-> smooth muscle relaxation-> areterial inflow/decreased venous outflow-> penile rigidity
Endothelial damage--> decreaseNO production
What are risk factors for ED?
What are the goals of treating ED?
Increased sexual function
Improve quality and quantity of erections suitable for intercourse
Maintain adequate erection for patient and partner satisfaction
What are treatment options for ED?
: increase physical activity, dietary changes, disease state management
: phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors, Yohimbine
: Vasoactive injection therapy, vaccum pump devices, penile prosthesis
How do PDE5 inhibitors work?
Inhibit cGMP --> build up of cGMP--> smooth muscle relaxation--> increased inflow of blood
SE: headache, flushing, dyspepsia, rhinitis, impaired color discrimination, dizziness, hypotension, CV effects, sudden hearing loss
What medication is PDE5 contraindicated?
What may increase the concentration of PDE5?
What are some examples of PDE5 Inhibitors?
How long does the effect of cialis work?
Should PDE5 inhibitors be taken with or without food? When should they be taken?
30 minutes prior to intercourse; once daily
Is Yohimbe recommended for ED?
Nope--efficacy not proven
: dizziness, anxiety, flushing, headache, hypertension, tachycardia, tremor