Basic Micro Exam One

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Basic Micro Exam One
2011-03-09 19:29:16
intro prokaryotic eukaryotic

Exam 1
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  1. Define: Microbiology
    study of microscopic organisms
  2. What are the general characteristics of bacteria?
    all are prokaryotic
  3. What are the general characteristics of archaea?
    • live in extreme habitats & normal
    • all are prokaryotic
  4. What are the general characteristics of eukaryotic organisms?
    • can live almost anywhere
    • grow to large sizes
  5. What is the general order in which the 3 domains of organisms evolved?
    • 1. Bacteria
    • 2. Archaea
    • 3. Eukarya
  6. Define: pathogen
    causes disease, makes you sick
  7. Define: infectious agent
    something that makes you sick
  8. Define: indigenous microflora
    • live on/in a healthy body
    • (normal flora)
  9. Define: infectious disease
    ingest the bacteria
  10. Define: microbial intoxication
    ingest the poison
  11. Define: photosynthesis
    energy of the sun produces food
  12. Define: decomposers
    breaks down dead material
  13. Define: bioremediation
    breaks down industrial wastes
  14. Define: plankton
    food for small marine animals
  15. Define: biotechnology
    mass producing biological products like protein
  16. Define: epidemic
    a disease occuring in large numbers
  17. What is one contribution Antony van Leeuwenhoek gave towards microbiology?
    he invented the 1st microscope
  18. What is one contribution Louis Pasteur gave towards microbiology?
    developed vaccines, method of pasteurization
  19. What is one contribution Robert Koch gave towards microbiology?
    • developed bacteria staining
    • discovered TB
  20. List Koch's postulates:
    • 1. microorganisms must always be found in similarly diseased animals (not healthy ones)
    • 2. must be isolated from diseased animal & grown in pure culture
    • 3.isolated microorganis must cause original disease when inoculated into a susceptible host
    • 4. microorganism must be reisolated from experimentally affected animals
  21. Define: empty magnification
    increasing resolving power w/ increasing magnification
  22. Define: simple light microscope
    only one lens
  23. Define: compound light microscope
    2 lenses
  24. Define: electron microscope
    beams of electrons & magnets
  25. Define: resolution
    limit to what can be seen
  26. What are the main differences of prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms?
    • P-no nucleus, small cells, not complex
    • E- nucleus, larger cells, complex
  27. How do the cell walls of gram-positive & gram-negative bacteria differ?
    • gram-p: thick
    • gram-n: thin
  28. Which bacteria do not have a cell wall?
    • mycoplasma
    • ureaplasma
  29. What do gram-positive, gram-negative, and acid-fast bacteria look like when stained?
    • gram-p: blue/purple
    • gram-n: red/pink
    • acid-fast: red/pink
  30. Define: capsules
    protect bacteria from immune system
  31. Define: slime layers
    surrounds bacteria cell
  32. What is the function of flagella?
    helps move bacteria
  33. What do the 4 types of flagella look like?
  34. What are 2 functions of pili?
    • allow for attachment
    • build a bridge between cytoplasm cells
  35. What is one function of nucleic acids?
    genetic material
  36. What is one function of ribosomes?
    make protein in the bacteria
  37. What is one function of cytoplasm?
    • holds things in place
    • contains salts, amino acids, minerals etc.
  38. What is one function of cytoplasmic granules?
  39. What is one function of endospores?
    protects DNA of bacteria
  40. Genus then species
    Genus followed by species
  41. What does Cocci look like?
  42. What does bacilli look like?
  43. What does sprial bacteria look like?
  44. What does staphylococci look like?
  45. What does streptococcus look like?
  46. Define: simple stain
    color what is present
  47. Define: differential stain
    • color specific parts that are present
    • gram stain/ acid fast stain
  48. Define: probe-mediated stain
    • directed specifically to identifying an organism
    • antibody/ DNA probemediated stains
  49. What are 3 ways to test for mobility?
    • 1. motility agar
    • 2. hanging drop slide
    • 3. colony morphology
  50. What are the 4 types of form/margin of colonies look like?
    • filamentous
    • irregular
    • smooth
    • rough
  51. What are the 5 types of elevation of colonies and what do they look like?
    • flat, raised, convex, umbilicate, umbonate
  52. Define: obilgate anaerobes
    no oxygen to grow
  53. Define: facultative anaerobes
    doesn't like oxygen but can grow in it
  54. Define: capnophile
    need 5-10% carbon dioxide to grow
  55. Define: obligate aerobes
    need same amount of atmosphere oxygen as we do
  56. Define: aerotolerant aerobes
    likes lower amts of oxygen
  57. Define: microaerophile
    grows best in 5-6% oxygen
  58. What's the optimal temperature range for thermophilic, mesophilic, & psychrophilic organisms?
    • thermophilic - 45-70
    • mesophilic - 25-40
    • psychrophilic - 10-20
  59. Define: fastidious
    fussy; strict requirements to grow
  60. Define: pathogenicity
    causes disease
  61. Where on the body are indigenous microflora located?
    • skin
    • ears & eyes
    • mouth
    • GI tract
    • respiratory tract
    • genitourinary tract
  62. Define: opportunistic pathogens
    cause disease if someone just had surgery or was injured
  63. Define: biofilms
    • microbes organize themselves into formations
    • ex. plaque
  64. Define: algae
    • protists
    • do photosynthesis
  65. Define: plants
  66. Define: protists
    includes algae & protozoa
  67. Define: fungi
    • fairly small & extremely large in size
    • suck the life out of things
  68. Define: yeasts
    • food prod - bread, beer
    • yeast infections
  69. Define: molds
    used produce antibiotics
  70. Define: lichens
    • moss-like
    • algae combined w/ fungus
  71. Define: slime molds
    fungus thats really slimey
  72. Define: insects
  73. Define: worms
  74. What are 3 diseases caused by protozoans?
    • malaria
    • giardiasis
    • african sleeping sickness
  75. Define: absorptive nutrition
    secret digestive enzymes that break down large food molecules & absorbing the breakdown products
  76. Define: saprobes
    feed on dead matter
  77. Define: parasites
    feed on live matter
  78. Name 1 disease caused by yeast?
    • athletes foot
    • yeast infection
  79. Define: neutralism
    no one benefits, just live on each other
  80. Define: commensalism
    1 benefits other doesnt
  81. Define: mutualism
    both benefit
  82. Define: parasitism
    1 benefits 1 harmed
  83. What is a helminth?