Basic Micro Exam One
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study of microscopic organisms
What are the general characteristics of bacteria?
all are prokaryotic
What are the general characteristics of archaea?
- live in extreme habitats & normal
- all are prokaryotic
What are the general characteristics of eukaryotic organisms?
- can live almost anywhere
- grow to large sizes
What is the general order in which the 3 domains of organisms evolved?
- 1. Bacteria
- 2. Archaea
- 3. Eukarya
causes disease, makes you sick
Define: infectious agent
something that makes you sick
Define: indigenous microflora
- live on/in a healthy body
- (normal flora)
Define: infectious disease
ingest the bacteria
Define: microbial intoxication
ingest the poison
energy of the sun produces food
breaks down dead material
breaks down industrial wastes
food for small marine animals
mass producing biological products like protein
a disease occuring in large numbers
What is one contribution Antony van Leeuwenhoek gave towards microbiology?
he invented the 1st microscope
What is one contribution Louis Pasteur gave towards microbiology?
developed vaccines, method of pasteurization
What is one contribution Robert Koch gave towards microbiology?
- developed bacteria staining
- discovered TB
List Koch's postulates:
- 1. microorganisms must always be found in similarly diseased animals (not healthy ones)
- 2. must be isolated from diseased animal & grown in pure culture
- 3.isolated microorganis must cause original disease when inoculated into a susceptible host
- 4. microorganism must be reisolated from experimentally affected animals
Define: empty magnification
increasing resolving power w/ increasing magnification
Define: simple light microscope
only one lens
Define: compound light microscope
Define: electron microscope
beams of electrons & magnets
limit to what can be seen
What are the main differences of prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms?
- P-no nucleus, small cells, not complex
- E- nucleus, larger cells, complex
How do the cell walls of gram-positive & gram-negative bacteria differ?
- gram-p: thick
- gram-n: thin
Which bacteria do not have a cell wall?
What do gram-positive, gram-negative, and acid-fast bacteria look like when stained?
- gram-p: blue/purple
- gram-n: red/pink
- acid-fast: red/pink
protect bacteria from immune system
Define: slime layers
surrounds bacteria cell
What is the function of flagella?
helps move bacteria
What do the 4 types of flagella look like?
What are 2 functions of pili?
- allow for attachment
- build a bridge between cytoplasm cells
What is one function of nucleic acids?
What is one function of ribosomes?
make protein in the bacteria
What is one function of cytoplasm?
- holds things in place
- contains salts, amino acids, minerals etc.
What is one function of cytoplasmic granules?
What is one function of endospores?
protects DNA of bacteria
Genus then species
Genus followed by species
What does Cocci look like?
What does bacilli look like?
What does sprial bacteria look like?
What does staphylococci look like?
What does streptococcus look like?
Define: simple stain
color what is present
Define: differential stain
- color specific parts that are present
- gram stain/ acid fast stain
Define: probe-mediated stain
- directed specifically to identifying an organism
- antibody/ DNA probemediated stains
What are 3 ways to test for mobility?
- 1. motility agar
- 2. hanging drop slide
- 3. colony morphology
What are the 4 types of form/margin of colonies look like?
What are the 5 types of elevation of colonies and what do they look like?
- flat, raised, convex, umbilicate, umbonate
Define: obilgate anaerobes
no oxygen to grow
Define: facultative anaerobes
doesn't like oxygen but can grow in it
need 5-10% carbon dioxide to grow
Define: obligate aerobes
need same amount of atmosphere oxygen as we do
Define: aerotolerant aerobes
likes lower amts of oxygen
grows best in 5-6% oxygen
What's the optimal temperature range for thermophilic, mesophilic, & psychrophilic organisms?
- thermophilic - 45-70
- mesophilic - 25-40
- psychrophilic - 10-20
fussy; strict requirements to grow
Where on the body are indigenous microflora located?
- ears & eyes
- GI tract
- respiratory tract
- genitourinary tract
Define: opportunistic pathogens
cause disease if someone just had surgery or was injured
- microbes organize themselves into formations
- ex. plaque
- do photosynthesis
includes algae & protozoa
- fairly small & extremely large in size
- suck the life out of things
- food prod - bread, beer
- yeast infections
used produce antibiotics
- algae combined w/ fungus
Define: slime molds
fungus thats really slimey
What are 3 diseases caused by protozoans?
- african sleeping sickness
Define: absorptive nutrition
secret digestive enzymes that break down large food molecules & absorbing the breakdown products
feed on dead matter
feed on live matter
Name 1 disease caused by yeast?
- athletes foot
- yeast infection
no one benefits, just live on each other
1 benefits other doesnt
1 benefits 1 harmed
What is a helminth?
What would you like to do?
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