PSY491_Ch6_Glossary

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darwinguevarra
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71200
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PSY491_Ch6_Glossary
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2011-03-06 23:46:54
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Ch. 6: Operant Conditioning: Introduction
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  1. avoidance behavior
    Behavior that occurs before the aversive stimulus is presented and therefore prevents its delivery.
  2. contrived reinforcers
    Reinforcers that have been deliberately arranged to modify a behavior; they are not a typical consequence of the behavior in that setting.
  3. discriminative stimulus (S squared d)
    A stimulus in the presence of which responses are reinforced and in the absence of which they are not reinforced.
  4. discriminative stimulus for extinction (S squared delta)
    A stimulus that signals the absence of reinforcement.
  5. discriminative stimulus for punishment
    A stimulus that signals that a response will be punished.
  6. escape behavior
    A behavior that results in the termination of an aversive stimulus.
  7. extrinsic reinforcement
    The reinforcement provided by a consequence that is external to the behavior, that is, an extrinsic reinforcer.
  8. generalized (or generalized secondary) reinforcer
    A type of secondary reinforcer that has been associated with several other reinforcers.
  9. intrinsic reinforcement
    Reinforcement provided by the mere act of performing the behavior; the performance of the behavior is inherently reinforcing.
  10. law of effect
    As stated by Edwin L. Thorndike (1874-1949), the proposition that behaviors that lead to a satisfying state of affairs are strengthened or "stamped in," while behaviors that lead to an unsatisfying or annoying state of affairs are weakened or "stamped out."
  11. natural reinforcers
    Reinforcers that are naturally provided for a certain behavior; that is, they are a typical consequence of that behavior within that setting.
  12. negative punishment
    The removal of a stimulus (one that is usually considered pleasant or rewarding) following a response, which then leads to an increase in the future strength of that response.
  13. negative reinforcement
    The removal of a stimulus (one that is usually considered unpleasant or aversive) following a response, which then leads to an increase in the future strength of that response.
  14. operant behavior
    A class of emitted responses that result in certain consequences; these consequences, in turn, affect the future probability or strength of those responses.
  15. operant conditioning
    A type of learning in which the future probability of a behavior is affected by its consequences.
  16. positive punishment
    The presentation of a stimulus (one that is usually considered unpleasant or aversive) following a response, which then leads to a decrease in the future strength of that response.
  17. primary reinforcer (or unconditioned reinforcer)
    An event that is innately reinforcing.
  18. punisher
    An event that (1) follows a behavior and (2) decreases the future probability of that behavior.
  19. reinforcer
    An even that (1) follows a behavior and (2) increases the future probability of that behavior.
  20. secondary reinforcer (or conditioned reinforcer)
    An event that is reinforcing because it has been associated with some other reinforcer.
  21. shaping
    The gradual creation of new operant behavior through reinforcement of successive approximations to that behavior.
  22. three-term contingency
    The relationship between a discriminative stimulus, an operant behavior, and a reinforcer or punisher.

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