eating disorder characterized by a morbid fear of gaining weight.
outlet of the digestive tract.
in humans, small, tubular appendage that extends outward from the cecum of the large intestine.
secretion of the liver temporarily stored and concentrated in the gallbladder before being released into the small intestine, where it emulsifies fat.
condition characterized by overeating episodes that are not followed by purging.
body mass index (BMI)
calculation used to determine whether a person is overweight or obese.
small lump of food that has been chewed and swallowed.
eating disorder characterized by binge eating followed by purging via self-induced vomiting or use of a laxative.
small pouch that lies below the entrance of the small intestine and is the blind end of the large intestine.
form of lipid: structural component of plasma membrane, precursor for steroid hormones.
thick, semiliquid food material that passes from the stomach to the small intestine.
chronic, irreversible injury to liver tissue; commonly caused by frequent alcohol consumption.
the major portion of the large intestine, consisting of the ascending colon, the transverse colon, and the descending colon.
delayed and difficult defecation caused by insufficient water in the feces.
discharge of feces from the rectum through the anus.
tooth decay that occurs when bacteria within the mouth metabolize sugar and give off acids that erode teeth; a cavity.
dome-shaped horizontal sheet of muscle and connective tissue that divides the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity. also, a birth control device consisting of a soft rubber or latex cup that fits over the cervix.
excessively frequent bowel movements
breaking down of large nutrient molecules into smaller molecules that can be absorbed.
a condition in which portions of the digestive tract mucosa have pushed through other layers of the tract forming pouches where food may collect.
first part of the small intestine where chyme enters from the stomach.
process of expelling substances from the body.
structure that covers the glottis during the process of swallowing.
muscular tube for moving swallowed food from the pharynx to the stomach.
essential amino acids
amino acids required in the human diet because the body cannot make them.
essential fatty acids
fatty acid required in the human diet because the body cannot make them.
structure resembling a thread; also, plant material that is non digestable.
organ attached to the liver that serves to store and concentrate bile.
crystalline bodies formed by concentration of normal and abnormal bile components within the gallbladder.
glad within the stomach wall that secretes gastric juice.
opening for airflow in the larynx.
glycemic index (GI)
blood glucose response of a given food
bony, anterior portion of the roof of the mouth.
burning pain in the chest that occurs when part of the stomach contents escape into the esophagus.
abnormally dilated blood vessels of the rectum.
inflammation of the liver. viral hepatitis occurs in several forms.
chemical signal produced by one set of cells that affects a different set of cells.
to break a chemical bond between molecules by insertion of a water molecule.
the taking of food or liquid into the body by way of the mouth.
yellowish tint to the skin caused by abnormal amount of bilirubin (bile pigment) in the blood, indicating liver malfunction.
lymphatic vessel in an intestinal villus; it aids in the absorption of lipids.
inability to digest lactose because of an enzyme deficiency.
last major portion of the digestive tract, extending from the small intestine to the anus and consisting of the cecum, the colon, the rectum, and the anal canal.
fat-digesting enzyme secreted by the pancreas.
large, dark red internal organ that produces urea and bile, detoxifies the blood, stores glycogen, and produces the plasma proteins, among other functions.
cavity inside any tubular structure, such as the lumen of the digestive tract.
naturally occurring inorganic substance containing two or more elements; certain minerals are needed in the diet.
membrane that lines tubes and body cavities that open to the outside of the body; mucous membrane.
mental state where a person thinks his or her body is underdeveloped and becomes preoccupied with body-building and diet; affects more men than women.
two layers of muscle in the gastrointestinal tract.
chemical substances in foods that are essential to the diet and contribute to good health.
excess adipose tissue; exceeding ideal weight by more than 20%.
condition in which bones break easily because calcium is removed from them faster than it is replaced.
internal organ that produces digestive enzymes and the hormones insulin and glucagon.
enzyme in the pancreas that digests starch to maltose
enzyme secreted by gastric glands that digests proteins to peptides.
inflammation of the periodontal membrane that lines tooth sockets, causing loss of bone and loosening of teeth.
wavelike contractions that propel substances along a tubular structure, such as the esophagus.
generalized infection of the lining of the abdominal cavity.
portion of the digestive tract between the mouth and the esophagus that serves as a passageway for food and also for air on its way to the trachea.
small abnormal growth that arises from the epithelial lining.
terminal end of the digestive tube between the sigmoid colon and the anus.
deep folds, as in the wall of the stomach
secreted from the salivary glands; the first enzyme to act on starch.
gland associated with the mouth that secretes saliva.
membrane that covers internal organs and lines cavities without an opening to the outside of the body.
long, tubelike chamber of the digestive tract between the stomach and large intestine
entirely muscular posterior portion of the roof of the mouth
muscle that surrounds a tube and closes or opens the tube by contracting and relaxing.
muscular sac that mixes food with gastric juices to form chyme, which enters the small intestine.
layer of connective tissue underneath a mucous membrane.
protein-digesting enzyme secreted by the pancreas.
primary nitrogenous waste of humans derived from amino acid breakdown.
small, tubular appendage that extends outward from the cecum of the large intestine.
small, finger like projection of the inner small intestinal wall.
essential requirement in the diet, needed in small amounts. they are often part of coenzymes.