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Urine is secreted by the kidneys, stored in the bladder and excreted through the urethra
urine formation is the complex process that cleans blood plasma of unnexessary substances while selectively reabsorbing other essential materials. specifically, waste products are removed and fluids, electrolytes, blood pressure, and pH are regulated to help the body maintain a normal state
What is homeostasis?
the body's attempt to keep its internal environment stable or in balance
- -the body temperature stays constant
- -the blood pressure stays within specific limits
- -the chemistry of the blood stays within certain normal limits
What is edema?
abnormal swelling of a part of the body caused by fluid collecting in that area; usually the swelling is in the ankles, legs, hands, or abdomen
a starving person can lose half of his body protein and almost haf his body weight and still live, but losing only one-fifth of the body's fluid will result in death. this is why it is very important for the doctor to know the patient's balance of fluid
Fluid intake inlcudes
everything the patient drinks: water, milk, milk drinks, fuirt juices, soup, tea, coffee, or anything liquid. Ice cream and gelatin also are counted as liquids and yogurts
Four ways of fluid output:
- most of the fluid passes through the kidneys and is discharged as urine
- some of the fluid is lost from the body through prespiration
- some fluid evaporated from the lungs in breathing
- the rest is absorbed and discharged through the intestinal system
What is forced fluids?
(FF) patients who need to have more fluids added to their normal intake and often need encouragement to drink more.
extra fluids to be taken in by a patient according to the doctor's orders
What is restrict fluids?
fluids that are limited to certain amounts
What is NPO?
NPO nothing by mouth cannot eat or drink anything at all
urinary catheter is inserted through the urethra into the bladder and a balloon is inflated with saline which keeps the end of the tube in the bladder to drain the urine. This is done by sterile technique by a RN the CNA does not do this but does provide care and observe the urine in the drainage bag. CNA empties the drainage bag, measures and documents the amount of urine and cleans around the catheter tube
indwelling urinary catheter
- check from time to time to make sure the level of urine has increased. if the level stays the same, report this to your immediate supervisor
- if the patient says he feels that his bladder is full or that he needs to urinate, report this to your immediate supervisor
- if the patient is allowed to get out of bed for short periods, the bag goes with the patient. it must be held lower than the patient's urinary bladder (below hip level) at all times to prevent the urine in the tubing and bag from draining back into the urinary bladder
- check to make sure there are no kinks in the catheter and tubing. be sure the patient is not lying on the catheter or the tubing . this would stop the flow of urine
- the catheter may be loosely taped or strapped at all times to the patient's inner thigh. this keeps it from being pulled on or being pulled out of the bladder
- most patients with urinary drainage through a catheter are on output. you must keep a careful record of urinary output
- keep tubing and drainage bag from touching the floor
- catheter care should be done as ordered for these patients
- report to your immediate supervisor any complaints the patient may have of burning, tenderness, or pain in the urethral area or any changes in the appearance of the urine
checking cathers and containers
- check tubing for kinks
- be sure patients is not lying on tubing
- check level in conatiner for increase in level. if level remains the same or increases rapidly, report to your immediate supervisor
- the palstic urine container is hung on bed frame below the level of the patient's urinary bladder
the CNA can clean genitals with soap and water and clean tube from entrance to body to where it connects to drainage bag