a monetary penalty imposed arbitarily at the discretion of the court for an offense.
a recognizance or bond given the court by a defendant before or after convi tion conditioned on his or her being "on good behavior" or keeping the peace for a prescribed period.
security ofr good behavior
a procedure under which an indictment was "laid on file" or held in abeyance, without either dismissal or final judgment in cases in which justice did not require an immediate sentence.
an oral or written request that the court repeal, nullify, or overturn a decision, usually made during aor after the trail.
motion to quash
an individual who agrees to become responsilble for the debt of a defendant or sho answers for the performance fo the defendant should the defendant fail to attend the next court appearance.
origianlly a device of preventive justice that obliged people suspected of future misbehavior to stipulate with and give full assurace to the court and public that the apprehended offfense would not occur. recognizance was later used with convicted or arraigned offenders with conditions of release set.
an order of the court after a verdict, finding, or plea of guilty that suspends or postpones the imposition or execttion of sentence during a period of good behavior
a judgment on the court, based on a defendants plea of guilty or nolo contendere, or on the verdict of a fjudge or jury that the def. is guilty of the offense with which he or she has been charged.
who was the founder of probation and what did he do?
john augustus- he was a bootmaker who bonded people out of jail and went to there court hearings with them
who was the co founder of probation
matthew devenport hill, he laid the foundation of probation in england where he lived
latin term meaning that the government acts as a "substitue parent" and allown the courts to intervene in cases in which it is in the childs best interest that a guardian be appointed for children who through no fault of their own, have been neglected and or are dependent.
formal written agreement between the state government and local entities for the state to fund counties to implement and operate community corrections progreams on a local level
community corrections act
a community supervision philosophy that allowed the officer to create therapeutic relationships with clients through counseling and directly assisting in behavior mondification to assist them in living productively in the community.
supervision that involves identifying the needs of probationers or parolees and referring them to an appropriate community agency.
brokerage of services
a supervision model in which probation or parole officers develop skills and linkages with comm. agencies in one or two areas only. supervision under this model is a team effort, each officer utilizing his or her skills and linkages to assist the offender.
community resource managemnt team model
the correctional practice based on the concept of just deserts and even handed punishment. the justice model calls for fairness in criminal sentencing, in that all people convicted of similar offense will recive a like sentence. this model or corrections relies on determinate sentenceint and or abolition of parole
a supervision strategy that emphasizes public safety, accountability, partnerships with other community agencies, and beat supervision
neighborhood based supervision
a procedure consisting of assessing the resks posed by the offender, identifying the supervision issues, and selecting the appropriate supervision strategy.
a procedure that provides a measure of the offenders propensity to further criminal activity and indicates the level of officer intervention that will be required
correlates of the likelihood of redidivism that once they occur cannot be changed (age at first arrest, number of convictions and so forth)
correlates of the likelihood of recidivism that can be changed through treatment and rehabilitation (drug and alcohol abuse, anger management, quality of family relationships and so forth
the oversight that a probation or parole officer exercises over those in his or her custody
community monitoring methads of ascetiaining offender compliance through one or more of the following means: face to face home visits, curfew, electronic monitoring, phone verification, and drug testing.
an officers personal visit to an offenders home or place of employment for the purpose of monitoring progress under supervision
verification of the probationer or parolees situation and whereabouts by means of the officer speaking with a third party who knows the offender personally (such as a family member, friend, or employer)
the number of individual or cases for which one probation or parole officer is responsible
Eight treatment standards that, if practiced, have been shown to reduce redidivism above that of other methods and constitue a theory behind evidence based correctional proctices.
principles of effective intervention
a therapeutic intervention of helping a person change that is a blend of two different types of therapies: congitive therapy whioch prepares the mind and ehavioral change which conditions the body.
congitive behavioral therapy
a communication style in which the community supervision officer creates a positive climate of sincerity and understanding that assists the offender in the change process.
a device that measures erectile responses in male sex offenders- used for assesment and treatment puposes.
fundamental knowledge and or skills for a newly hired officer in preparation for working independently
speicialized and standardized trainging that officers are required to complete before they may carry a firearem on the job
peace officer state training
periodic continuing education trainging for seasoned officers
in service training
the discretion that exists in the role of the probation and parole officer to treat clients fairly and consistently and according to individual circumstances
the two functions of a probation and parole officer that of enforcing the rules and laws and providing support and reintegration that are sometimes conradictory and difficult to reconcile.
the failure of an officer to do what a reasonably prudent person would have done in like or similar circumstances.
protection from legal action or liability unless workers engage in discretion that is interntionally and maliciously wrong
protection from liability in decisions or actions that are "objectively reasonable
an agency that is owned and operated by a private business or nonprofit organization and contracts with the state, olocal, or federal dovernment to supervise clients convicted of a misdemeanor.
any for profit or non profit private organization that contracts with county level or state level government to provide probation supervision, independent probation treatment services, or both probation supervision and treatment
private service provider
an agreement signed by all states and us territories that allows for the supervision of parolees and probationers across state lines
under the interstate compact the state of conviction
under the interstate compact, the state that undertakes the supervision
a formalized decree granting authority to a commission to create and enforce rules for member states for the supervision of offenders in other states.
interstate compact for adult offender supervision
the process of hearings that results when the probationer in noncompliant with the current level of probation. results of a revocation are either modifying probation conditions to a more intensive supervision level or the complete elimination of probation and sentence to a residential community facility, jail, or prison
termination of probation at any time during the probation period or after some time has been served
violations of probation or parole conditions that involve the commission of a crime
multiple violations that breach one or more noncriminal conditions of probation
laws must be applied in a fair and equal manner. fundamental fairness.
an inquiry conducted to determine if there is probable cause to believe that the offender committed a probation or parole violation
a due process hearing that must be conducted before probation or parole can be revoked
final revocation hearing
the level or proof, measured by the strength of the evidence, needed to render a decision in a courty proceeding
standard of proof
a level of proof used in a probation revocation administrative hearing in which the judge dedides based on which side presents more convncing evidence and its probable truth or accuracy and not necessarily on the amount of evidence.