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An aerosol is suspension of liquid or solid particles in a gas.
Defined as the mass or fluid or drug contained in aerosol produced by nebulizer.
Is the mass of aerosol generated per unit of time. Varies by diff neb and inhalers.
Described the mass of drug leaving the mouthpiece as a aerosol.
Fraction of inhaled dose deposited in the lungs.
What do most nebs in RC produce? what aerosol?
Different kind of deposition?
- 1. Interial impaction
- 2. sedementation
- 3. diffusion
Occurs when aerosol in motion collides with a surface (greater than 5-10 um) (oro/hypopharynx)
Occurs when aerosol particles settle out (1-5 um) of suspension and are depsoited due to gravity. Small particles represent primary for deposition. Increases w/ breath holding. The greater the mass of particle, the faster it will settle.
Very small particles (.5-1 um) Stay suspended in lungs and exhaled back into the environment.
Factors that will affect Deposition
- 1. Depends on particle size
- 2. Instrument.
- 3. Where you want it to go.
MMAd (Massmedian aerosol dynamic diamater) 1-2 microns, 2-5 microns, and 5-10 microns?
- 1-2 microns - Lung parendyma = deep lung tissue
- 2-5 microns - central lower airway (broncodilators, steroids)
- 5-10 microns - oro/hypopharynx (upper airway) (condition CROUP)
Why we encourage patient to do breath hold? what are we achieving?
Sedementation increases with breath holding, deposits due to gravity. Higher chance?
Primary hazard of aerosol drug therapy?
Is the adverse reaction to the medication.
Actual systems we use in the hospital. (Three common drug aerosol delivery systems.)
- 1. Breath actuated MDI
- 2. spacers and holding chambers.
- 3. Drug powder inhalers
Breath actuated MDI
triggers actuation (to put into motion, activate) when patinet inhales, useful when patient coordinate inhalation w/ actuation.
spacers and chambers
designed to reduce oropharyngeal deposition, needs hand -breath coordination.
Dry powder inhalaer
A breath actuated dosing system.
Patient creates aerosol by sucking air through a dose of finley milled drug powder. "Thrush" a yeast infection on tongue, starts cracking happens when you don't rense.
Large volume vs continious neb. Most common hazard? has to do w/ a drug?