CHFD 5110 Exam 2

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CHFD 5110 Exam 2
2011-03-07 19:51:54

Research Methods
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  1. Measurement
    The process of observing and recording the observations that are collected as part of a research effort
  2. Construct Validity
    Are you measuring what you inteded to measure?
  3. Translation Validity
    • Under the umbrella of construct validity
    • Focuses on where the operationalization (ie- measure) is a good translation of the construct
  4. Face Validity
    • On it's face, does the operationalization look like a good translation of the construct?
    • Does it seem like it fits for this?
  5. Content Validity
    Operationalization is checked against the relevant content domain for the construct
  6. Criterion-Related Validity
    • The performance of your operationalization (ie- measure) is checked against some other criterion
    • A prediction of how the operationalization will perform on some other measure based on your theory or construct
  7. Predictive Validity
    • Under criterion-related validity
    • Operationalization's ability to predict something it should theoretically be able to predict
    • ie- Is your SAT score able to predict your success in college?
  8. Concurrent Validity
    • Under criterion-related validity
    • Operationalization's ability to distinguish between groups that it should theoretically bea ble to distinguish between
    • ie- Can a measure of depression distinguish between people who are depressed and those who aren't?
  9. Convergent Validity
    • Under criterion-related validity
    • Degree to which the operationalization is simuilar to other operationalizations to which it should theoretically be similar
    • You'll see this one the most
    • ie- Does your measure of depression correlate highly with another measure of depression?
    • You want high correlations, but not TOO high :)
  10. Discriminant Validity
    • Under criterion-related validity
    • Degree to which the operationalization is not similar to other operationalizations to which it theoretically shouldn't be similar to
    • ie- Do you like your therapist & How well you cope in your family... they SHOULDN'T correlate
    • You want low correlations
  11. Inadequate Preoperational Explication of Constructs
    • Threat to construct validity
    • A really long way to say that people didn't do their jobs. They didn't define what they were doing well enough
  12. Mono-Operation Bias
    • Threat to construct validity
    • Pertains to treatment or program
    • Used only one version of the treatment or progam
    • ie- Trying only one dosage of a drug in a drug trial instead of trying multiple dosages
  13. Mono-Method Bias
    • Threat to construct validity
    • Pertains to the measures or outcomes
    • Only used one type of measure instead of several
    • This is a problem because of accuracy- we need multiple ways to look at results!!
  14. Hypothesis Guessing
    • Threat to construct validity
    • People guess the hypothesis and respond to it rather than respond naturally
    • This could cause you to mislabel the "cause." You'll attribute effect to treatment rather than good guessing
  15. Evaluation Apprehension
    • Threat to construct validity
    • Ppl make themselves look good just because they're in a study
  16. Experimenter Expectancies
    • Threat to construct validity
    • Can bias consciously or unconsciously
  17. Confounding Constructs & Levels of Constructs
    • Threat to construct validity
    • Conclude that the treatement has no effect when it's only that level of the treatment which has none (might need more or less to see a result)
  18. Interaction of Different Treatments
    • Threat to construct validity
    • Ppl get more than 1 treatment
    • Labeling issue
    • ie- Don't only get tutoring from your program, also get help from family at home
  19. Interaction of Testing & Treatment
    • Threat to construct validity
    • Does the testing itself make the groups more sensitive or receptive to the treatment?
    • Labeling issue
  20. Restricted Generalizability Across Constructs
    • Threat to construct validity
    • You didn't measure your outcomes completely
    • You didn't measure some key affected constructs at all
    • ie- Viagra was supposed to help with blood pressure
  21. Reliability
    • Consistency or repeatability of a measure
    • Getting the same result every time you do the study
    • Based on True Score Theory of Measurement
  22. True Score Theory of Measurement
    • Observed score = True ability + Random error
    • We never really have the true score!
  23. Random Error
    • Caused by any factors that randomly effect measurement of a variable across the sample
    • Things that happen to you on a daily basis but don't change the dynamics of the entire group
    • ie- One person is having a bad day the day you administer a depression measure
  24. Systematic Error
    • Caused by factors that systematically affect measurement of a variable across the sample
    • Does affect the group average
    • ie- Temperature in the room
  25. Error Component
    There's an observed score, a true score, and an error
  26. Ways to Reduce Measurement Error
    • Pilot test the measures
    • Train interviewers/observers
    • Double-check data
    • Statistically adjust for error
    • Use multiple measures of the same construct
  27. Reliabilty Ratio
    • Reliabilty ranges from 0 to 1
    • It's the percet of the true score that is there
    • Shows how much of a true score we have and how much error we have
  28. Inter-Rater Reliability
    • One type of reliability
    • Assesses the degree to which different raters/observers give consistent estimates of the same phenomenon about the estimate of the true score
    • Percent agreement
    • Usually the cut-off for reliability is .80 (about 80% accurate)
  29. Test-Retest
    • One type of reliability
    • Correlation btw 2 observations on the same test administered to the same (or similar) sample on 2 diff occasions
    • Time btw observations is crucial
    • Looking for stability over time
  30. Parallel-Forms
    • One type of reliability
    • Correlation btw to observations on parallel forms of a test administered to the same sample
    • 2 forms of the "test" can be used independently but it requires that you generate a lot of items (b/c you need to create 2 diff versions)
    • Assumes randomly divided halves are equivalent
    • Looking for stability across forms
  31. Internal Consistency
    • One type of reliability
    • Single test administered to a sample on one occasion
    • Assesses the consistency of the results for diff items for the same construct w/in the measure
    • Average item-total correlation
    • How consistent is the measure inside itself?
    • Probably see Conbach's alpha (a) the most (the average of all possible split half correlations)
  32. Cronbach's Alpha (a)
    • Part of internal consistency reliability
    • The average of all possible split-half correlations
  33. Reliable, Not Valid
  34. Valid, Not Reliable
  35. Neither Valid nor Reliable
  36. Both Reliable and Valid
  37. Relationship of Validity & Reliability
    • Both are important, but aren't related
    • You can have one without the other
    • You want it to be reliable AND valid if you can
  38. Nominal Level of Measurement
    • Numerical values simply name the attribute
    • No ordering of values is implied (the number is a place holder, not an indication of how good or bad something is)
    • Numerical values are simply "short codes" for longer names
    • ie- "1" for male and "2" for female
  39. Ordinal Level of Measurement
    • Attributes can be rank-ordered
    • Distances/intervals between attributes have no meaning (you can rank who's higher and who's lower, but you don't know the gap between them)
    • ie- Degrees of agreement (strongly agree/agree/neutral...)
  40. Interval Level of Measurement
    • Attributes can be rank-ordered
    • Distances/intervals between attributes do have meaning
    • ie- Temperature on Fahrenheit scales- if it's 65 today and 75 tomorrow, we can say tomorrow will be 10 degrees warmer
    • Ratios don't make sense (80* isn't twice as much as 40*)
    • No meaninful Absolute Zero (0* is not the absense of heat)
  41. Ratio Level of Measurement
    • Always a meaninful Absolute zero
    • ie- Anything you count or Income in dollars
    • Ratios make sense (If you made $2 and I made $4, I made $2 more than you did)
  42. Survey
    • Frequently used method in our field
    • Questionnaires & interviews
  43. Structured Questions
    • Dichotomous response format (ie- "yes" or "no")
    • Questions based on level of measurement (ie- rank order of preferences)
    • Filter or contingency questions (1st question determines qualification to answer the next one)
  44. Filter or Contingency Questions
    • First question determines qualification or necessary experience to answer the next question
    • ie- "If no, skip to question 4."
  45. Double-Barrelled Questions
    Questions with more than one response
  46. Structured Response Formats
    • Fill-in-the-Blank
    • Check the Answer
    • Circle the Answer
  47. Unstructured Response Formats
    • Written text
    • ie- "Tell me more about your experience with..."
  48. Indexes*
    • When you combine 2+ variables to reflect a more general construct
    • ie- SES Index
  49. Constructing an Index
    • Conceptualization
    • Operationalization & Measurement
    • Development of rules for calculating the score
    • Validation of the index score
    • CODV!!
    • Consider- does it match what I'm trying to measure??**
  50. Scaling
    • Take qualitative ideas (like willingness to have immigrants in your country) and come up with a way to measure them quantitatively
    • Where a lot of error occurs
    • Typically yields a single numerical score that represents the construct of interest
    • ie- Degree of depression
    • Is a process, not a response scale... so it requires more development
    • Seen more than indexing
  51. Purpose of Scaling
    • Hypothesis Testing: Is the construct or concept a single dimensional one?
    • Exploration: What dimensions underlie some ratings?
    • Scoring: For assigning values to responses
  52. One-Dimensional Constructs
    • Higher/Lower
    • ie- Age, Height, GPA
  53. Two-Dimensional Constructs
    • Constructs must be related
    • ie- Shared activity & communication to measure marital satisfaction
  54. Likert Scaling
    • Unidimensional scaling methods
    • Summative scale
    • Scaling process, not response-format
    • Start w/ large set of items you think all reflect the same construct
    • Have a group of judges rate the items on how much they think it relates to the overall concept
  55. Item-Total Correlations
    • Likert scaling
    • Throw out items with the total (summed) score across all items
  56. Internal Consistency
    • Likert scaling
    • For each item, get the average rating for the top 1/4 of judges and the bottom 1/4
    • Better discrimination
  57. Qualitative Measures
    • If it's not numbers, it's qualitative
    • Consists of words
    • Used to generate new theories/hypotheses, Achieve deep understanding of an issue, Develop detailed stories to describe a phenomenon
    • More about understanding something, not proving something
  58. Quantitative Data
    Consists of numbers
  59. Qualitative Traditions
    • A big umbrella, kind of like a theory
    • Includes: Ethonography, Phenomenology, Field research, and Grounded theory
  60. Ethnography
    • Qualitative tradition
    • Study within the context of a culture
    • What only, no interaction
    • Concerned with cause & effect
    • Sometimes called "naturalistic research"
    • Used mostly in anthropological research
    • Most common approach is participant observation
    • No limits of what will be observed and no real ending point
  61. Phenomenology*
    • Qualitative tradition
    • Interested in the phenomenon from the perspective of the participants
    • Acknowledge that objectivity is impossible to ascertain and often incl. a section in their report about themselves to acknowledge biases
  62. Field Research
    • Qualitative tradition
    • Researcher observes a phenomenon in its natural state (in situ)
    • An observation in the environment where they'd normally be
    • No implemented controls or experimental conditions to speak of (nature is emphasized over culture here!)
    • Only concerned with observing. Not concerned with cause & effect
    • Especially useful in observing social phenomena over time
  63. Grounded Theory
    • Qualitative tradition
    • To develop a theory, grounded in observation, about a phenomenon of interest
    • Build a theory from the ground up or go in with preconceived notions
    • Interview changes as you learn things
    • Eventually get to a place where you've fully explored the phenomenon & have an idea what's going on
  64. Qualitative Methods
    Think of these not as the umbrella, but as separate umbrellas under tha main umbrella of traditions
  65. Participant Observation
    • Qualitative Method
    • Researcher becomes a participant in the culture being observed
    • Takes some time
  66. Direct Observation
    • Qualitative Method
    • Researcher not a member of the culture being studied but remains unobtrusive
    • Just observing- not getting involved
    • Don't get as much info as you would if you were participating
  67. Unstructured Interviewing
    • Qualitative Method
    • Direct interaction btw. the researcher and respondent
    • No set direction- just kind of see where it goes
    • There's always a little bit of structure, though, since you're interviewing this person for a reason
  68. Case Studies
    • Qualitative Method
    • Intensive study of a specific individual or specific context
  69. Traditional Criteria for Judging Qualititative Research
    • Internal validity
    • External validity
    • Reliability
    • Objectivity
  70. Alternative Criteria for Judging Qualitative Research
    • Credibility
    • Transferability
    • Dependability
    • Confirmability
  71. Credibility
    Est. that the results are credible from the perspective of the participant
  72. Transferability
    Degree to which results can be generalized to other contexts
  73. Dependability*
    • Description by the researcher of changes w/in the context & how these might affect conclusions
  74. Confirmability
    Degree to which others can confirm or corroborate the results
  75. Indirect Measures
    • Unobtrusive measure
    • The researcher collects data w/out the participant being aware of it
  76. Content Analysis
    • Unobtrusive measure
    • Systematic analysis of text in order to identify patterns
  77. Secondary Analysis*
    When you use data that's already been collected (ie- census report) for new research