Bio chapter 8

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Bio chapter 8
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2011-03-07 15:41:29
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biology 110 chapter 8
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  1. ___________ ________ is the creation of offspring by a single parent, without sperm or egg; cloning.
    Asexual reproduction
  2. Asexual reproduction is
    the creation of offspring by a single parent, without sperm or egg; cloning.
  3. These are examples of________ ______:

    - Offspring are identical to the original cell or organism.

    - All genes are inherited from 1 parent
    Asexual reproduction
  4. A _______ cell has a single set of chromosomes.
    haploid
  5. A _________ cell has 2 sets of chromosomes.
    diploid
  6. A _______ is a diploid fertilized egg that results from the union of a sperm cell nucleus and an egg cell nucleus.
    zygote
  7. ______ ______ is the creation of offspring by the fusion of 2 haploid sex cells (gametes: haploid egg & sperm cells) that form a diploid zygote.
    Sexual reproduction
  8. _________: haploid egg & sperm cells
    gametes
  9. _________ _______ produces offspring with unique combinations of genes
    Sexual reproduction
  10. _______ ________Offspring are similar to parents, but show variations in traits
    sexual reproduction
  11. ________ ________ Genes are inherited from 2 parents in uniqu
    Sexual reproduction
  12. People manipulate sexual reproduction in ________ ________ of domestic plants and animals to try to exploit wanted traits and then minimize variation to fix those wanted traits.
    selective breeding
  13. All domestic dogs are ______ ______ sbsp. familiaris.
    Canis lupus
  14. All domestic dogs are Canis lupus sub species. _______.
    familiaris
  15. Cells arise only from ________ ________
    pre-existing cells
  16. 4 Examples of reasons for asexual cell division
    - Reproduction of an entire single-celled organism

    - Growth of a multicellular organism

    - Growth from a fertilized egg into an adult

    - Repair and replacement of cells in an adult
  17. Reason for sexual cell division:
    - Sperm and egg production
  18. Prokaryotes (bacteria & archaea) reproduce by ________ _______(asexual reproduction).
    binary fission
  19. _________ ________ means “dividing in half”: 2 identical cells arise from one cel
    Binary fission
  20. Binary fission means “dividing in half”: 2 identical cells arise from one cell

    Explain the 3 step process:
    1. A single circular chromosome duplicates, and the copies begin to separate from each other.

    2. The cell elongates, and the chromosomal copies separate further.

    3. The plasma membrane grows inward at the midpoint to divide the cells
  21. Binary fission visual 3 step process:
    1.Duplication of chromosomeand separation of copies

    2. Continued elongation of thecell and movement of copies

    3. Division into two daughter cells
  22. _______ cells have more chromosomes and therefore more genes than prokaryotic cells.
    Eukaryotic
  23. Like_______ cells, the chromosomes of eukaryotic cells duplicate with each cell division
    prokaryotic
  24. Eukaryotic chromosomes are composed of ________ = DNA + proteins
    chromatin
  25. ________ duplicate early in the division process
    Chromosomes
  26. To prepare for division, the ________ becomes highly compact, and the chromosomes are visible with a microscope
    chromatin
  27. Each chromosome appears as two _______ ________, containing identical DNA molecules
    sister chromatids
  28. Sister chromatids are joined at the ________, a narrow region.
    centromere
  29. Humans have ___ # of chromosomes that must divide with every cell cycl
    46
  30. The _____ ______ is an ordered sequence of events for cell division
    cell cycle
  31. 2 stages of the cell cycle:
    1) Interphase: duplication of cell contents; growing stage3 subphases of InterphaseG1 (1st Gap) - growth; increase in cytoplasmS (synthesis of DNA) - duplication of chromosomesG2 (2nd Gap) - growth: preparation for division

    2) Mitotic Phase: division 2 subphases of the Mitotic PhaseMitosis - division of the nucleus & its contentsCytokinesis - division of cytoplas
  32. ___________: duplication of cell contents; growing stage
    Interphase
  33. ______ ________: division (phase in the cell cycle)
    Mitotic Phase
  34. 3 subphases of Interphase
    G1 (1st Gap) - growth; increase in cytoplasm

    S (synthesis of DNA) - duplication of chromosomes

    G2 (2nd Gap) - growth: preparation for division
  35. 2 subphases of the Mitotic Phase
    Mitosis - division of the nucleus & its contents

    Cytokinesis - division of cytoplasm
  36. Most of the cell cycle (~90%) is spent in _______ (the growing stage).
    Interphase
  37. The remainder of the cell cycle (~10%) is spent in the ______ _______ (the division stage).
    Mitotic Phase
  38. Mitosis progresses through a series of 5 stages.
    - Prophase

    - Prometaphase

    - Metaphase

    - Anaphase

    - Telophas
  39. ________ often overlaps telophas
    Cytokinesis
  40. ________ produce the mitotic spindle, which is a football-shaped structure of microtubules that guides the separation of the 2 sets of daughter chromosomes
    Centrosomes
  41. Centrosomes produce the _____ ______, which is a football-shaped structure of microtubules that guides the separation of the 2 sets of daughter chromosomes
    mitotic spindle
  42. Prophase:
    In the cytoplasm:Microtubules emerge from centrosomes, forming the _______ ____.In the nucleus:Chromosomes coil and become compact
    mitotic spindle
  43. Prometaphase:
    Mitotic spindle microtubules attach to _______ of sister chromatids & move chromosomes to the center of the cell.
    centromeres
  44. Stage 2 Mitotic PhaseMetaphase 3 parts:
    Mitotic spindle is fully formed.

    Chromosomes align at the cell equator.

    Sister chromatids face opposite poles of the spindle.
  45. Stage 2 Mitotic PhaseAnaphase (3 parts)
    Sister chromatids separate at the centromeres.

    Daugher chromosomes are moved to opposite poles of the cell.

    The cell elongates due to lengthening of the microtubules
  46. Stage 2 Mitotic PhaseTelophase 4 steps:
    The cell continues to elongate.

    The nuclear envelope forms aroundchromosomes at each pole, establishingdaughter nuclei.

    Chromatin uncoils.

    The mitotic spindle disappears
  47. Stage 2 Mitotic Phase Telophase& Cytokines what is Cytokinesis 1 step:
    Cytoplasm is divided into separate cells

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