MSA1

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Anonymous
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71322
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MSA1
Updated:
2011-03-07 15:01:42
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Musculoskeletal Anatomy
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LP #1
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  1. Anatomy
    The study of structure
  2. Physiology
    Study of function
  3. Pathology
    The study of disease
  4. Kinesiology
    The study of movement
  5. Skeletal System
    • Provide Shape, protection, and form for our bodies
    • Bones, Cartilage, Ligaments (and tendons)
    • 206 Bones
    • Axial Skeleton
    • Appendicular Skeleton
  6. Muscular System
    • Anatomical Position that allows for movement
    • 3 types of muscle: skeletal, smooth, cardiac
  7. Anatomical Position
    Standing erect, feet forward with palms facing forward and arms at side, feet 6-8 inches apart

    *note- neutral position varies in that the arms arms at side of body with palms facing inward
  8. Anterior
    • Ventral
    • Toward the front
  9. Posterior
    • Dorsal
    • Toward the back
  10. Medial
    • closer to the middle
    • divides into right and left halves
  11. Lateral
    toward the side, away from midline
  12. Ipsilateral
    Same side
  13. Contralateral
    • Opposite Side
    • eg: SCM contralateral flexion
  14. Proximal
    closer to the trunk (extremities)
  15. Distal
    Further from the trunk (extremities)
  16. Superficial
    Near the surface
  17. Peripheral
    outward near the surface
  18. Deep
    parts that are more internal
  19. Plantar
    refers to bottom of foot
  20. Dorsum
    top of foot, back of hand
  21. Palmar
    palm of hand
  22. Cephalic
    • toward the head
    • superior
  23. Caudal
    • farther from head
    • inferior
  24. Origin
    attachment of muscle, usually closer to head (anchor of muscle)
  25. Insertion
    • attachment of a muscle usually further from head
    • usually the 'moving' end
  26. Sagittal Plane
    division of body to left and right portions
  27. Transverse Plane
    • horizontal plane
    • division of body into top and bottom portions
  28. Coronal Plane
    • Frontal Plane
    • division of body into front and back portions
  29. Bone Classification and example (5)
    • Long - humerus
    • Short - wrist and ankle bones
    • Irregular - vertebrae
    • Flat - scapula
    • Round/Sesamoid - patella
  30. Long Bone
    • Long longitudinal axis
    • expanded ends
    • allow for increased movement
    • eg: forearm, thigh
  31. Short Bones
    • cube like
    • length x width= roughly equal
    • little movement
  32. Flat Bones
    • plate like with broad surfaces
    • eg: sternum, ribs, some skull bones
  33. Irregular Bones
    • variety of shapes
    • usually connected to other bones
    • eg: vertebrae, many facial bones
  34. Round/Sesamoid
    • small and nodular
    • embedded within the tendons adjacent to jnts
  35. How are bones classified?
    Shape and Function
  36. Parts of a Long Bone (4)
    • Epiphysis
    • Diaphysis
    • Articular Cartilage/Hyaline Cartilage
    • Periosteum
  37. Epiphysis
    • expanded portion of long bone at each end
    • articulates with another bone
  38. Articular Cartilage/Hyaline Cartilage
    • coats the articular surface of epiphysis
    • "white grizzle"
  39. Diaphysis
    Shaft of long bone, between epiphyses
  40. Periosteum
    • tough, fibrous vascular tissue which is continuous with tendons and ligaments
    • functions in formation and repair of bone tissue
  41. Bone Function
    • Support and Protection: give shape, support body weight, protect brain
    • Body Movement: bones and muscles interact during movement
    • bones act as levers
  42. # of Bones in human body
    206
  43. 2 main branches of Skeleton
    • Axial
    • Appendicular
  44. Axial Skeletan
    Head, neck, and trunk
  45. Skull
    • (axial skeleton)
    • comprised of cranium and facial bones
  46. Vertebral Column
    • (axial skeleton)
    • vertebrae separated by vertebral discs, sacrum, and coccyx
  47. Thoracic Cage
    • (axial skeleton)
    • 12 pairs of ribs and sternum
  48. Appendicular Skeleton
    upper and lower limbs, bones that anchor limbs to axial skeleton
  49. Pectoral Girdle
    • (appendicular skeleton)
    • scapula and clavicle
  50. Upper Limbs
    • (appendicular skeleton)
    • Humerus, radius, ulna, carpals, metacarpals, and phalanges
  51. Pelvic Girdle
    • (appendicular skeleton)
    • Coxal bones (hip bones) and Pelvis
  52. Lower Limbs
    • (appendicular skeleton)
    • femur, tibia, fibula, patella, tarsals, metatarsals, phalanges
  53. What is Palpation?
    a tooled used to examine and explore any area of the body through skilled touch
  54. Palpation is a skill that involves _____? (3)
    • Locating the structure
    • Becoming aware of it's characteristics
    • Assessing its quality or condition to determine how best to treat it
  55. Three Principles of Palpation
    • Move slowly
    • Avoid using excessive pressure
    • Focus your awareness on what you are feeling
  56. PALPATION HINTS
    • Making Contact
    • Working Harder vs Working Smarter
    • Less is More
    • Rolling and Strumming
    • Movement vs Stillness
  57. Palpation: Body Mechanics
    • Upper body=centered over hips, NOT in front of kness
    • Neck= on top of shoulders
    • Legs= Spread wide with weight on back
    • Hips= facing direction of stoke
    • Arms= relaxed in front of body
    • Fingers/Thumbs= avoid hyperextension, use "W" when possible

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