HN chapter 5 lipids

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HN chapter 5 lipids
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2011-03-07 15:47:16
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  1. lipids include: ?, ?, ?
    • Triglycerides,
    • Phospholipids, and Sterols
  2. fats and oils?
    triglycerides
  3. they are ? in water
    insoluble
  4. how do fatty acids varry?
    • length of carbon chain
    • degrees of unsaturation
    • # of double bonds
  5. what is saturation?
    • affects physical
    • characteristics of fat and its storage properties
  6. Trans-fatty acids
    • have same negative health
    • effects as saturated fatty acids
  7. Long-chain fatty acids are
    found primarily in
    meat, fish, and vegetable oils
  8. Medium- and short-chain fatty acids are
    found in
    dairy products
  9. Saturated fatty acids
    carry ?
    • maximum possible number of
    • hydrogen atoms
  10. Called a saturated fat:
    when
    • most of the fatty acids
    • are saturated
  11. Triglycerides are lipids with
    • 3 fatty acids attached to
    • a glycerol
  12. Degree of Unsaturation
    Firmness
  13. Saturated fats
    solid at room temperature
  14. Polyunsaturated fats
    • liquid at
    • room temperature
  15. Shorter fatty acid chains
    are ?
    • softer at room temperature
    • than longer chains
  16. Saturated
    • (animal fat & tropical
    • oils)
    • §Coconut oil, palm oil, butter, beef tallow,
    • lard
  17. Monounsaturated
    • •(vegetable
    • oils)

    §Olive, canola and peanut oils
  18. Polyunsaturated
    §(vegetable oils)

    • §Safflower, flaxseed, walnut, sunflower, corn,
    • soybean and cottonseed oils
  19. Degree of Unsaturation
    Stability
  20. Saturated fat is more resistant to
    spoilage
  21. Monounsaturated fat is
    slightly less resistant to
    spoilage
  22. Polyunsaturated fat
    spoils most quickly
  23. •Protection
    from rancidity
    • –Seal
    • in airtight containers away from light

    • –Add
    • antioxidants

    • –Hydrogenation
    • (stiff at room temp)
  24. Unsaturation

    Hydrogenation
    • •Protects
    • against oxidation - prolongs shelf life

    • •Alters
    • texture

    • •Think
    • “Crisco”
  25. §Trans-Fatty Acids :-(
    • •Change
    • from cis to trans configuration; act like saturated fats in
    • body
  26. Heart disease connection with
    trans fats
  27. Conjugated linoleic acid
    is a naturally occurring
    • trans fat that may be
    • beneficial to health
  28. Phospholipids in Foods contain
    • glycerol, two fatty acids
    • and a phosphate group with a molecule of choline
  29. Phospholipids are used as ?
    emulsifiers in foods such as manoyase
  30. Phospholipids enable
    • lipid transport across
    • cell membranes
  31. Lechithin
    • •made
    • by liver; supplements increase energy intake and can cause GI distress
  32. Food
    sources lecithin:
    • eggs, liver, soybeans,
    • wheat germ and peanuts
  33. Cholesterol best known
    sterol
  34. Sterols are found in
    plant and animal foods
  35. Exogenous cholesterol
    found in
    • animal foods only - meat, eggs, fish, poultry and dairy
    • products
  36. Fat
    soluble vitamin D synthesized from
    cholesterol
  37. sterols are the starting material for
    • bile acids, sex hormones,
    • adrenal hormones & vitamin D
  38. sterols are the structural components of
    cell membranes
  39. liver produces
    cholesterol
  40. Atherosclerosis
    • disease that causes heart
    • attacks; occurs when cholesterol forms deposits in artery walls
  41. Hydrophobic nature of
    lipids
  42. Lipids separate from
    watery fluids of digestion
  43. Digestive enzymes are hydrophilic
    water loving
  44. Bile from liver emulsifies
    lipids
  45. Enzymes then break down
    lipids to
    monoglycerides and fatty acids
  46. fat digestion in gi tract
    • mouth and salivary glands
    • stomach
    • small intestine
    • large intestine
  47. Lipid Digestion in the mouth
    salivary glands release lingual lipase
  48. lipid digestion in stomach?
    • muscle contractions...
    • disperse fat into smaller droplets; fat exposed to gastric lipase enzyme
  49. Cholecystokinin (CCK)
    • signals gallbladder to
    • release bile
  50. Pancreatic and intestinal
    enzymes hydrolyze (break down
    lipids to monoglycerides and fatty acids
  51. Phospholipids
    are hydrolyzed
  52. Sterols are absorbed
    as they are
  53. Bile’s Routes
    Enterohepatic circulation
    reabsorbed and recycled
  54. Soluble fibers
    • (oats, beans, vegetables
    • & fruit) trap bile acids and excrete from body through large intestine
  55. In
    the liver, bile is

    made from
    cholesterol
  56. In
    the gallbladder
    bile is stored
  57. In
    the small intestine,
    bile emulsifies fat
  58. In
    the colon, bile that has been trapped by soluble fibers is
    los as feces
  59. Glycerol and short- and
    medium-chain fatty acids diffuse and are absorbed
    directly in blood stream
  60. Monoglycerides and long-chain fatty acids form
    • micelles;
    • absorbed and reformed into new triglycerides
  61. Lipoprotein
    carriers
    “vehicles”
  62. §Chylomicrons
    • Largest of lipoproteins . beach ball
    • •Least dense
  63. VLDL
    • §Very-Low-Density
    • Lipoproteins)


    •Composed 2/3 as triglyceride

    •Think softball size

    •Made by liver & intestines

    •Transport lipids to tissues
  64. LDL
    • think golf ball size
    • •Transports cholesterol to body
    • cells
  65. HDL
    • §High-Density
    • Lipoproteins) :-)


    • •Made of over 50% protein (only
    • 5% TG, 20% cholesterol)


    • •Think steel ball-bearing 3/4”
    • diameter


    • •Transport cholesterol from cells
    • to liver

    • •Protects against atherosclerosis;
    • reduces risk heart disease (“good cholesterol”)
  66. Hypercholesterolemia
    high total cholesterol
  67. Hypertriglyceridemia
    high TG
  68. Hyperlipidemia
    • high TG, high cholesterol
    • or both
  69. Dyslipidemia
    • abnormal lipid levels,
    • usually too high
  70. Genes
    • influence lipoprotein
    • activity
  71. Eat fish
    • ameircan heart association recommendation
    • Good protein; low in saturated fat
    • omega 3 ***
  72. Other sources omega-3s
    • vegetable oils (canola,
    • soybean and flaxseed), walnuts, flaxseeds
  73. roles of tryg;ycerides (fats)
    • §Provide
    • body with energy

    • §Use
    • carbohydrate and protein efficiently (nutrients support each other)

    §Insulation

    • §Shock
    • protection - cushion bones & vital body organs
  74. Essential Fatty Acids
    cannot be made by the body
  75. why does the body not store all xtra energy as glycogen?
    • fat holds 6x more energy than fat
    • you would weigh more
  76. Fasting metabolizes
    • fat, but fat requires
    • carbohydrate and protein for complete breakdown
  77. Ketone bodies
    • can be made from fat
    • fragments
  78. High intakes of saturated fat and trans fat and high blood LDL
    cholesterol
    increased risk of heart disease
  79. Cholesterol accumulates in
    • arteries, restricts blood
    • flow and raises blood pressure
  80. Food sources of
    cholesterol
    • egg yolks, milk products,
    • meat, poultry and shellfish
  81. Too little fat can be
    detrimental to health
  82. fat guidelines
    • lean cuts of meant/ meat alternatives
    • fat free and low fat milk products
    • wide variety vegetables,
    • fruits, and whole grains
  83. fat replacers are ingredients
    • derived from carbohydrate,
    • protein or fat
  84. fat replacers decreace
    • absorption of fat-soluble
    • vitamins and may cause GI distress in some
  85. Saturated fat and trans fat are poor
    heart health

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