MS2013: First Aid Classic Lab Findings

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svenhop
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71349
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MS2013: First Aid Classic Lab Findings
Updated:
2011-03-12 15:53:44
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Classic labs findings first aid STEP
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Classic Labs/Findings
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  1. Anticentromere antibodies
    Scleroderma (CREST)
  2. Antidesmoglein (epithelial) antibodies
    Pemphigus vulgaris (blistering)
  3. Anti-glomerular basement membrane antibodies
    Goodpasture's syndrome (glomerulonephritis and hemoptysis)
  4. Antihistone antibodies
    Drug-induced SLE (hydralazine, isoniazid, phenytoin, procainamide)
  5. Anti-IgG antibodies
    Rheumatoid arthritis
  6. Antimitochondrial antibodies (AMAs)
    1° biliary cirrhosis (female, cholestasis, portal hypertension)
  7. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs)
    Vasculitis (c-ANCA: Wegener's; p-ANCA: microscopic polyangiitis, Churg-Strauss syndrome)
  8. Antinuclear antibodies (ANAs: anti-Smith and anti-dsDNA)
    SLE (type III hypersensitivity)
  9. Antiplatelet antibodies
    Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) (bleeding diathesis)
  10. Anti-topoisomerase antibodies
    Diffuse systemic scleroderma
  11. Anti-transglutaminase/antigliadin/anti-endomysial antibodies
    Celiac disease (diarrhea, distention, weight loss)
  12. Azurophilic granular needles in leukemic blasts
    Auer rods (acute myelogenous leukemia: especially the promyelocytic type)
  13. "Bamboo spine" on x-ray
    Ankylosing spondylitis (chronic inflammatory arthritis: HLA-B27)
  14. Basophilic nuclear remnants in RBCs
    Howell-Jolly bodies (due to splenectomy or nonfunctional spleen)
  15. Bloody tap on LP
    Subarachnoid hemorrhage
  16. "Boot-shaped" heart on x-ray
    Tetralogy of Fallot, RVH
  17. Branching gram-positive rods with sulfur granules
    Actinomyces israelii
  18. Bronchogenic apical lung tumor
    Pancoast's tumor (can compress sympathetic ganglion and cause Horner's syndrome)
  19. "Brown" tumor of bone
    Hemorrhage (hemosiderin) causes brown color of osteolytic cysts. Due to:

    • 1. Hyperparathyroidism
    • 2. Osteitis fibrosa cystica
  20. Cariomegaly with apical atrophy
    Chagas' disease (Trypanosoma cruzi)
  21. Cellular crescents in Bowman's capsule
    Rapidly progressive crescentic glomerulonephritis
  22. "Chocolate cyst" of ovary
    Endometriosis (frequently involves both ovaries)
  23. Circular grouping of dark tumor cells surrounding pale neurofibrils
    Homer Wright rosettes (neuroblastoma, medulloblastoma, retinoblastoma)
  24. Colonies of mucoid Pseudomonas in lungs
    Cystic fibrosis (CFTR mutation in Caucasians resulting in fat-soluble vitamin deficiency and mucous plugs)
  25. Degeneration of dorsal column nerves
    Tabes dorsalis (3° syphilis)
  26. Depigmentation of neurons in substantia nigra
    Parkinson's disease (basal ganglia disorder: rigidity, resting tremor, bradykinesia)
  27. Desquamated epithelium casts in sputum
    Curschmann's spirals (bronchial asthma; can result in whorled mucous plugs)
  28. Disarrayed granulosa cells in eosinophilic fluid
    Call-Exner bodies (granulosa-theca cell tumor of the ovary)
  29. Dysplastic squamous cervical cells with nuclear enlargement and hyperchromasia
    Koilocytes (HPV: predisposes to cervical cancer)
  30. Enlarged cells with intranuclear inclusion bodies
    "Owl's eye" appearance of CMV
  31. Enlarged thyroid cells with ground-glass nuclei
    "Orphan Annie" eye nuclei (papillary carinoma of thyroid)
  32. Eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusion in liver cell
    Mallory bodies (alcoholic liver disease)
  33. Eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusion in nerve cell
    Lewy body (Parkinson's disease)
  34. Eosinophilic globule in liver
    Councilman body (toxic or viral hepatitis, often yellow fever)
  35. Eosinophilic inclusion bodies in cytoplasm of hippocampal nerve cells
    Rabies virus (Lyssavirus)
  36. Extracellular amyloid deposition in gray matter of brain
    Senile plaques (Alzheimer's disease)
  37. Giant B cells with bilobed nuclei with prominent inclusions ("owl's eye")
    Reed-Sternberg cells (Hodgkin's lymphoma)
  38. Glomerulus-like structure surrounding vessel in germ cells
    Schiller-Duval bodies (yolk sac tumor)
  39. "Hair-on-end" (crew-cut) appearance on x-ray
    β-thalassemia, sickle cell anemia (extramedullary hematopoiesis)
  40. hCG elevated
    Choriocarcinoma, hydatidiform mole (occurs with and without embryo)
  41. Heart nodules (inflammatory)
    Aschoff bodies (rheumatic fever)
  42. Heterophile antibodies
    Infectious mononucleosis (EBV)
  43. Hexagonal, double-pointed, needle-like crystals in bronchial secretions
    Bronchial asthma (Charcot-Leyden crystals; eosinophilic granules)
  44. High level of D-dimers
    DVT, pulmonary embolism, DIC
  45. Hilar lymphadenopathy, peripheral granulomatous lesion in middle or lower lung lobes (can calcify)
    Ghon focus (1° TB: Mycobacterium bacilli)
  46. "Honeycomb lung" on x-ray
    Interstitial fibrosis
  47. Hypersegmented neutrophils
    Megaloblastic anemia (B12, folate deficiency)
  48. Hypochromic, microcytic anemia
    Iron deficiency anemia, lead poisoning, thalassemia (HbF sometimes present)
  49. Increased α-fetoprotien in amniotic fluid/maternal serum
    Anencephaly, spina bifida (neural tube defects)
  50. Increased uric acid levels
    Gout, Lesch-Nyhan syndrome, tumor lysis syndrome, loop and thiazide diuretics
  51. Intranuclear eosinophilic droplet-like bodies
    Cowdry type A bodies (HSV or yellow fever)
  52. Iron-containing nodules in alveolar septum
    Ferruginous bodies (asbestosis: increased chance of mesothelioma)
  53. Large lysosomal vesicles in phagocytes, immunodeficiency
    Chediak-Higashi disease (congenital failure of phagolysosome formation)
  54. Low serum ceruloplasmin
    Wilson's disease (hepatolenticular degeneration)
  55. "Lumpy-bumpy" appearance of glomeruli on immunofluorescence
    Poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (immune complex deposition of IgG and C3b)
  56. Lytic ("hole-punched") bone lesions on x-ray
    Multiple myeloma
  57. Mammary gland ("blue-domed") cyst
    Fibrocystic change of the breast
  58. Monoclonal antibody spike
    1. Multiple myeloma (called the M protein; usually IgG or IgA)

    2. Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS; normal consequence of aging)

    3. Waldenstrom's (M-protein=IgM) macroglobulinemia

    4. Primary amyloidosis
  59. Monoclonal globulin protein in blood/urine
    Bence Jones proteins (multiple myeloma [kappa or lambda Ig light chains in urine]), Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia (IgM)
  60. Mucin-filled cell with peripheral nucleus
    Signet ring (gastric carcinoma)
  61. Narrowing of bowel lumen on barium radiograph
    "String sign" (Crohn's disease)
  62. Needle-shaped, negatively birefringent crystals
    Gout (hyperuricemia)
  63. Nodular hyaline deposits in glomeruli
    Kimmelstiel-Wilson nodules (diabetic nephropathy)
  64. "Nutmeg" appearance of liver
    Chronic passive congestion of liver due to right heart failure
  65. "Onion skin" periosteal reaction
    Ewing's sarcoma (malignant round-cell tumor)
  66. Periosteum raised from bone, creating triangular area
    Codman's triangle on x-ray (osteosarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma, pyogenic osteomyelitis)
  67. Podocyte fusion on EM
    Minimal change disease (child with nephrotic syndrome)
  68. Polished, "ivory-like" appearance of bone at cartilage erosion
    Eburnation (osteoarthritis resulting in bony sclerosis)
  69. Protein aggregates in neurons from hyperphosphorylation of protein tau
    Neurofibrillary tangles (Alzheimer's disease and CJD)
  70. Pseudopalisading tumor cells on brain biopsy
    Glioblastoma multiforme
  71. RBC casts in urine
    Acute glomerulonephritis
  72. Rectangular, crystal-like, cytoplasmic inclusions in Leydig cells
    Reinke crystals (Leydig cell tumor)
  73. Renal epithelial casts in urine
    Acute toxic/viral nephrosis
  74. Rhomboid crystals, positively birefringent
    Pseudogout (calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate)
  75. Rib notching
    Coarctation of the aorta
  76. Sheets of medium-sized lymphoid cells ("starry sky" appearance on histology)
    Burkitt's lymphoma (t[8:14] c-myc activation, associated with EBV)
  77. Silver-staining spherical aggregation of tau proteins in neurons
    Pick bodies (Pick's disease: progressive dementia, similar to Alzheimer's)
  78. "Soap bubble" in femur or tibia on x-ray
    Giant cell tumor of bone (generally benign)
  79. "Spikes" on basement membrane, "dome-like" endothelial deposits
    Membranous glomerulonephritis (may progress to nephrotic syndrome)
  80. Stacks of red blood cells
    Rouleaux formation (high ESR, multiple myeloma)
  81. Stippled vaginal epithelial cells
    "Clue cells" (Gardnerella vaginalis)
  82. "Tennis-racket"-shaped cytoplasmic organelles (EM) in Langerhans cells
    Birbeck granules (histiocytosis X: eosinophilic granuloma)
  83. Thrombi made of white/red layers
    Lines of Zahn (arterial thrombus, layers of platelets/RBCs)
  84. "Thumb sign" on lateral x-ray
    Epiglottis (Haemophilus influenzae)
  85. Thyroid-like appearance of kidney
    Chronic bacterial pyelonephritis
  86. "Tram-track" appearance on LM
    Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis
  87. Triglyceride accumulation in liver cell vacuoles
    Fatty liver disease (alcoholic or metabolic syndrome)
  88. WBCs that look "smudged"
    CLL (almost always B cell, affects the elderly)
  89. "Wire loop" glomerular appearance on LM
    Lupus nephropathy
  90. Yellow CSF
    Xanthochromia (subarachnoid hemorrhage)

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