Chapter 29

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carlyandgenie
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71355
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Chapter 29
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2011-03-07 16:31:59
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AP Biology
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AP Biology
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  1. annuals
    A plant having a life cycle that starts and ends in one growing season
  2. apical meristems
    Mass of dividing cells at root tips and shoot tips
  3. bark
    Of woody plants, all tissues that are external to the vascular cambium
  4. bud
    A dormant shoot, mostly meristematic tissue and often sheathed in small, young leaves. A lateral (axillary) this forms in a leaf axil; a terminal bud forms at a shoot tip and is the main zone of primary growth
  5. collenchyma
    One of three simple plant tissues. Flexibly supports rapidly growing plant parts. Its elongated cells, alive at maturity, have a pectin-rich primary wall that is thickened where three or more these cells abut
  6. companion cells
    Specialized parenchyma cell that helps load sugars into conducting cells of phloem
  7. cork
    Tissue component of bark with many suberized layers; waterproofs, insulates, and protects woody stem and root surfaces
  8. cork cambium
    A lateral meristem, the descendants of which replace epidermis with cork on woody plant parts
  9. cotyledons
    Seed leaf; part of a flowering plant embryo. In eudicots, two of thesse absorb nutrients from endosperm, emerge aboveground as the seed germinates, and transfer nutrients that sustain early growth; photosynthetic before true leaves form. In most monocots, one small this helps transfer nutrients from endosperm to the embryo, but it remains underground when a seed germinates and is never photosynthetic
  10. cuticle
    Of plants, a cover of transparent waxes and cutin on the outer wall of epidermal cells. Of annelids, a thin, flexible coat. Of arthropods, a lightweight exoskeleton hardened with chitin
  11. cutin
    Lipid polymer synthesized by land plants and deposited in cell walls and on the outer surface of epidermal cells
  12. dermal tissue system
    Tissues that cover and protect all exposed plant surfaces
  13. endodermis
    Cylindrical, sheetlike cell layer around the root vascular cylinder; helps control water and solute uptake
  14. epidermis
    Outermost tissue layer of plants and nearly all animals
  15. eudicot
    Flowering plant characterized by having embryos with two cotyledons; net-veined leaves; and floral parts in fours, fives, or multiples of these
  16. fibrous root system
    Lateral branchings of adventitious roots arising from a new stem
  17. ground tissue system
    Parenchyma and other tissues; the bulk of a plant body
  18. growth or tree rings
    One of the alternating bands of early and late wood; a “tree ring.”
  19. guard cells
    One of two cells that define a stoma across leaf or stem epidermis.
  20. hardwoods
    Strong, dense wood with many vessels, tracheids, and fibers in xylem
  21. heartwood
    Dense, dry tissue at the core of aging tree stems and roots; helps trees defy gravity and store metabolic wastes
  22. internode
    Plant stem between two nodes
  23. lateral buds
    Axillary bud. A dormant shoot that forms in a leaf axil
  24. lateral meristems
    Vascular cambium or cork cambium. A sheetlike cylinder of meristem inside older stems and roots
  25. lateral roots
    Outward branching from the first (primary) root of a taproot system
  26. leaf
    Chlorophyll-rich plant organ of sunlight interception and photosynthesis
  27. lignin
    Gluelike polymer deposited in secondary cell walls; makes some plant parts stronger, more waterproof, and less vulnerable to attacks
  28. meristems
    One of the localized zones where dividing cells gives rise to differentiated cell lineages that form all mature plant tissues
  29. mesophyll
    Photosynthetic parenchyma with many air spaces
  30. monocot
    ; flowering plant characterized by embryo sporophytes having one cotyledon; floral parts usually in threes (or multiples of three); and often parallel-veined leaves
  31. node
    A location along the length of a stem where one or more leaves form
  32. parenchyma
    One of the simple plant tissues; makes up the bulk of the plant. Its living cells have roles in photosynthesis, storage, and other tasks
  33. perennials
    Plant having a life cycle that extends through three or more growing seasons
  34. pericycle
    One or more cell layers inside the endodermis; gives rise to lateral roots and also contributes to secondary growth
  35. periderm
    Protective cover that replaces plant epidermis on older stems and roots
  36. phloem
    Plant vascular tissue that distributes photosynthetic products through the plant body. Its conducting tubes are interconnecting, living cells assisted by companion cells that help load solutes into the tubes
  37. pith
    Of most eudicot stems, ground tissue inside the ring of vascular bundles
  38. primary root
    First root of a seed plant
  39. root hairs
    Hairlike, absorptive extension of a young, specialized root epidermal cell
  40. roots
    Typically belowground plant part. It absorbs water and dissolved minerals, often anchors aboveground parts and stores food
  41. sapwood
    Of an older stem or root, the moist secondary growth between the vascular cambium and heartwood
  42. sclerenchyma
    One of three simple plant tissues; supports mature parts and often protects seeds. Lignin often thickens and reinforces its cell walls
  43. sieve-tube members
    A living cell that helps form a conducting tube in phloem
  44. softwoods
    Wood with tracheids, no fibers or vessels; less dense than hardwood
  45. stoma, stomata
    A gap between two plumped guard cells that lets water vapor and gases diffuse across the epidermis of a leaf or primary stem; diffusion stops when the cells lose water and collapse
  46. taproot system
    A primary root and all of its lateral branchings
  47. tracheids
    A type of cell in xylem that conducts water and mineral ions
  48. vascular bundles
    Multistranded, sheathed bundle of primary xylem and phloem in the ground tissue system of a stem or leaf
  49. vascular cambium
    A lateral meristem that forms in older stems or roots
  50. vascular cylinder
    Multistranded, sheathed, cylindrical array of primary xylem and phloem inside a root
  51. vascular tissue system
    All xylem and phloem in plants that are structurally more complex than bryophytes
  52. veins
    Of a cardiovascular system, any of the large-diameter vessels that lead back to the heart. Of leaves, a vascular bundle threading through photosynthetic tissue
  53. vessel members
    Type of cell in xylem, dead at maturity; its wall becomes part of a water-conducting vessel
  54. waxes
    A lipid with long-chain fatty acids attached to an alcohol other than glycerol
  55. xylem
    Of vascular plants, a complex tissue that conducts water and solutes through tubes of interconnected walls of cells that are dead at matu

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