Histo- Premidterm

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Histo- Premidterm
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Histology Premidterms
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  1. Clinical Word Association (Blood)
    • anisocytosis: size
    • poikilocytosis: shape
    • aplastic anemia: bone marrow destruction
    • Hemolytic anemia: membrane defect
    • hemmorhagic anemia: ulcer
    • pernicious anemai: b12
    • thalessemia: excess Hb
    • sickle cell: glutamic acid > valine
    • hereditary spherocytosis: hemolyse in spleen
    • acute leukemia: overproduction of WBC
    • chronic leukemia: nondestruction/accum of WBC
  2. Types of Hemophelia
    • A- male- factor 8
    • B- male- factor 9
    • C- m &f- factor 11
  3. Prenatal Hemopoeisis
    • initial- yolk sac
    • middle- liver (some spleen)
    • toward birth- exclusively bone marrow
  4. WBC %s
    • neutrophils (70%)
    • lymphocytes (30%)
    • monocytes (5%)
    • eosinophils (2%)
    • basophils (.5%)
  5. Blood type named after...
    the antigen the person posesses
  6. Clinical correlates (Bone)
    • kartenger: dynein
    • bollous pemphigoid: collagen 17 destruction @ BM
    • atrophy: decreased size
    • hypertrophy: increased size
    • hyperplasia: increased #
    • metaplasia: epithelial change (barrets, bronchitis, smoking)
    • dysplasia: proliferation, no maturation
    • neoiplasm: cancer (unregulated cell growth)
    • carcinoma: epithelium tumor
    • adenoma: gland tumor
    • lipoma: fatty tumor
    • EDS: alpha chains
    • fibrosis: excessive scarring
    • scurvy: vitamin C deficinet
    • Marfans: fibrillin 1
    • osteoarthritis: eburnation
    • rickets: mineral defecit (Vit D in kids)
    • osteopetrosis: osteblasts
    • osteogenesis imperfecta: collagen I excess
    • Osteoperosis: deficient GH or estrogen
  7. MAPs
    • microtuble associating proteins
    • dynein, kinesin, dynamin
  8. Clinnical Correlates (Muscles/Nerves/GI)
    • duchenne: dystrophin (links actin to external lamina)
    • mysthenia gravis: Ach receptor antibodies block receptors
    • bronchial asthma: thick smooth muscle, remodelling of blood vessels
    • multiple sclerosis: CNS demyelination
    • Parkinsons: domapin, lewy body
    • hiatus hernia: stomach through esophageal hiatus
    • hirschprungs: congenital megacolon (neural crest cells)
    • Caput medusa: portal hypertension
    • hemorrhoids: anus
    • emphysemia: destruction of elastic lung fubers
    • Wislons disease: cu accumulation in eye, liver, brain
    • Cirrhosis: irreversible liver fibrosis
  9. Eosin
    • stains proteins pink
    • acidophilc
    • AE
  10. hematoxylin
    • stains nucleic acids (DNA/RNA) blue
    • basophillic
    • HB
  11. PAS
    stains carbohydrtes pink
  12. 4 types of tissue
    • nervous
    • skeletal
    • connective
    • epithelial
  13. Epithelium of:
    small intestines
    collecting duct (kidneys)
    trachea
    • all simple
    • -columnar
    • cuboidal
    • psuedostratified
  14. epidermis epithelium
    stratified squamous, keratinized
  15. Where would you find stratified squamous nonkeratinized?
    cervix, vagina, mucus membrane, esophagus
  16. Sweat glands are what type of epithelium?
    stratified cuboidal
  17. transitional epithelium
    • "umbrella cells"
    • UT, testes
  18. difference between microvilli and sterocillia/villus?
    • microvilli- short, separate
    • stereocillia- branched
  19. Anome
    9+2 microtubule arrangement
  20. Zonula Occludens
    • Tight Jnx
    • occludens/ claudins
  21. Zonula Adherens
    • adherent jnx
    • viniculin, actin
    • cams (cell adhesion molecules)
    • fascia adherens- cardiac intercalated disks
  22. Macula Adherens
    • Desmosomes
    • desmoplakins/cadherins
  23. Zonula Communicans
    • Gap jnx (nexus)
    • 6 connexins = connexonHe
  24. Hemidesmosomes
    • @ basal lamina
    • integrins , collagen 17
  25. components of basement membrane
    basal lamina + reticular lamina
  26. basal lamina
    regeneration guide
  27. Merocrine Gland
    • merocrine- release in small vesicles w no loss of cytoplasm
    • "merely"
    • ex: goblet cells
  28. Apocrine gland
    • release in large vessicles w slight loss of cytoplasm
    • ex: prostate glands
  29. holocrine gland
    • release vessicle and destroys entire cell
    • ex: sebaceous hair follicle
  30. alveolar vs acinar cells
  31. dysplasia
    aplasia
    metaplasia
    neoplasia
    • dysplasia: abnormal cell growth
    • aplasia: no cell growth
    • metaplasia: replacement of one tissue with another
    • neoplasia: new growth (tumor, carcinoma etc)
  32. Stroma vs Parenchyma
    • Stroma: surroundings, supportive
    • Parenchyma: Performs cell function
  33. 3 Basic Components of CT
    • 1- tissue fluid
    • 2- ground substance: GAGs, proteoglycan, glyiproteins
    • 3- fibers: elastin, collagin, reticular
  34. Reticular Fibers (collagen type, where found, stain)
    • collagen type III
    • found in organs with large volume change
    • agyrophilic, PAS positive
  35. What makes most of the components of CT?
    fibroblasts
  36. unilocular vs multilocular cells
    • unilocular: fat, white, single lipid drops, energy storage
    • multilocular: small, brown, multiple lipid drops, heat production
  37. Characteristics of Plasma Cells
    • clock face nuclei
    • negative golgi
    • (derive from B lympocytes)
  38. what does argyrophilic mean?
    impregnation with silver salts and made visible w reducing agent
  39. Collagen Formation
    • Preprocollagen: (nucleus)
    • Procollagen: formed after translation, hydroxylation, glycosylation (RER)
    • Tropocollagen: cleaves off the propeptides
    • collagen: forms when lysl oxidase forms cross links b/w tropocollagen fibers
  40. Stains for elastic fibers?
    • orecin
    • resourcin
    • verhoffs
  41. Locations of Type I, II, III collagen
    • I: bones, skin
    • II: hyalin = cartillage, notochord
    • III: reticular = organs and blood vessels
  42. Dense Regular CT
    • parallel collagen fibers
    • tendons, cornea
  43. Elastic CT
    ligamentum flavum, vocal ligaments, suspensory ligaments of penis
  44. Keloid
    excess collagen promotes scar tissue to rise outside the wound boundary
  45. Lipoma vs Liposarcoma
    • Lipoma: benign tumor in fatty tissue
    • Liposarcoma: malignant tumor in fatty tissue
  46. Photoaging is due to mutation of...
    elastic tissue
  47. Plasma vs serum
    • plasma: contains clotting factor
    • serum: no clotting factors
  48. Which blood cell has the longest lifespan?
    lymphocyte
  49. Erythroblastosis Fetalis
    Rh- mother, Rh+ child ---> anti D blood
  50. Diapedesis
    movement of cells through endothelial/epithelial tissue
  51. # erythrocytes/microliter in males, females?
    • males: 4.1-6 x 106
    • females: 3.9-5.5 x 106
  52. Erythropoesis Stages
    • proerythrblast
    • basophilic e
    • polychromatic e
    • orthochromatic e
    • reticulocyte
    • erythrocyte
  53. Granulocytopoesis Stages
    • myeloblast
    • promyeloblast

    • myelocyte
    • metamyelocyte

    band/stab cell
  54. Thrombopoesis Stages
    • megakaryoblast
    • megakaryocyte
    • thrombus
    • platelet
  55. "shift to the left"
    • too many WBCs are produced, that RBCs dont have space to produce
    • increase in neutrophilic metamyelocytes
  56. Vitamin k deficinecy
    necessary for Koaggulation
  57. What causes malaria?
    plasmodium infection (mosquitos)
  58. Alubumin
    • protein synthesized in liver
    • maintains COP to transport metabolites
  59. Gama globulin protein
    comes from plasma cells to produce Igs

    Gamma - Immunoglobbins
  60. Mesosome
    membrane folding
  61. Picnosis
    when DNA compacts to such a degree that it is not used (heterochromatin)
  62. Karyokinesis
    nuclear division without cell division
  63. Cytokinesis
    cell division
  64. Mitosis vs Meiosis
    cell division vs cell reduction
  65. Longst phase of cell cycle?
    Shortest?
    • longest: G1 (G is tall)
    • shortest: M1
  66. Hutchinson's Syndrome
    • early aging
    • unstable lamin A (part of nuclear envelope)
    • telomere damage
  67. Werner's Syndrome
    • telomere damage
    • ???
  68. Rb
    • retinoblastoma gene
    • phosphorylated = inactive = cell cycle cannot be supressed (BAD!)
    • phosphorylated via CDK4-Cyclin D
  69. p53
    • in cancer cells p53 is mutated
    • mutated p53 cannot innitate apoptosis of cancerous cells
  70. Acute Inflammatory Chemical Mediators
    complimetnary C5a + Leukatrine B4
  71. Signs of Inflammation
    • redness (rubor)
    • heat (calor)
    • pain (dolor)
    • swelling (tumor)
  72. salpingitis
    inflammation of fallopian tubes
  73. cellulitis
    inflammation of subcutaneous tissue
  74. oponisation
    when phagocytosis of an organism is promoted by coating of Igs
  75. Supportive/Purulent inflammation
    • contains pus filled w neutrophils
    • caused by pyogenic bacteria
  76. serous inflammation
    • forms transudate- accumulation of fluid w low plasma protein content
    • ex: burning skin
  77. Resolution
    complete restoration of normal tissue structure anf function
  78. Predominant cells in acute vs chronic inflammation
    • acute: neutrophils
    • chronic: lymphocytes, macrophages, plasma cells
  79. Microtubules
    • 9+2
    • cilia, flagella, centrioles
    • require MAP and tau proteins
    • GTP - required for polymerization
  80. centrosome
    majore MT organizing center
  81. Centrosome
    • made up of 2 centriOLES at right angles from each other
    • 9 triplets x 1
  82. Taxol
    binds to MTto prevent depolymerization
  83. kinocilium
    • 9+0
    • hair cells in ear to detect balance
  84. Motor proteins of MT
    • dynein- retrogred transport (toward cell body)
    • kinesin- antereograde (away from cell body)
    • myosin- use ATP to move along actin
  85. Intermediate Filaments
    • fnx: maintain cell shape
    • CYTOPLASMIC
    • Keratin: epithelia
    • Vimentin: CT, muscles, neuroglia [fmxs to attach nucleas to plasma membrane]
    • --------Desmin: muscles
    • -------Astroglial cells: glial fibrillar acidic protein (GFAP)
    • neurofilaments: nerve cells

    • NUCLEAR
    • nuclear lamins (regulate transcription, attaches chromosome to nuclear envelope) - in all nucleated cells
  86. Cell crawling
    • Psuedopodeum- protrusion of cell surface
    • Lamillapodeum- membranous process during contraction
    • Fillipodium- extends from lamillipodum to form focal adhesions
  87. Chaperones
    • Heat shock proteins
    • prevent peptide from folding until completley syntehsized
    • repairs denatured proteins, or Ubqiuinates them
    • mitochondrial chapperones: unfold the protein to get it into mitochondria, refolds it once inside
  88. proteasomes
    trashcan for misfolded proteins, tagged by ubiquitin
  89. TPP II
    proteoplasmic peptidase, follows the action of proteosome an make sure all Ub-tagged proteins are destroyed (and frees AA in the cytosol)
  90. Perichondrium
    • supplies blood to cartillage
    • outter cellular layer and
    • chondrogenic layer: its inner cellular layer
  91. Fibrocartillage cartillage
    • Type I cartillage
    • NO perichondrium
    • enthesis- site of attachment b/w ligament and tendon into bone
    • pubic symphysis, IV disks, phalanges
    • acidophilic
    • parallel rows of chondrocytes
  92. Hyalin Cartillage
    • Type II cartillage
    • articular cartillage- only hyalin cartillage w/o perichondrium
  93. Elastic Cartillage
    • Type II cartillage + elastic fibers
    • pina, auditory tubules, epiglottis
  94. sarcoplasmic reticulum
    reservoir for ionized Ca2+ ions in skeletal muscles
  95. What bands of the sarcomere shorten during contraction?
    H & I
  96. Titin
    large macromolecle (looks like a spring) that attaches b/w the Z line and myosin
  97. dystrophin
    attaches Z line to sarcolemma
  98. Nebulin
    regulates thin filament length during sarcomere assembly
  99. Where are T tubules in skeletal muscle? in cardiac?
    • skeletal: @ AI Jnx
    • cardiac: @ Z disk
  100. Triad
    T tubule w 2 adjacent terminal cisternae
  101. geometric arrangement of muscle?
    • ?
    • one thick filament surrounded by 6 thin filaments (hexagonal)
  102. Describe Conduction
    • Nerve impulse picked up by sarcolemma and conducted via T tubules
    • Terminal Cisternae release Ca2+ via voltage gated channels
    • Ca2+ binds to troponin
    • troponin alters tropomyosin and reveals myosin binding site on actin
    • ATP on myosin is hydrolyzed and myosin binds to actin
    • power stroke- when phosphate released
  103. Satellite cells
    • in skeletal muscle
    • responsible for growth, healing, and regeneration of skeletal muscle
  104. Type I Skeletal Muscle Fiber
    • SO- slow oxidative
    • red fibers
    • slow contracting
    • long lasting, fatique resistent
    • high in mitochondria and myoglobin
  105. Type IIA Skeletal Muscle Fiber
    • FOG- fast oxidative glycolytic
    • intermediate
    • adaptive - aerobic or anaerobic
  106. Type IIB Skeletal Muscle Fiber
    • FG- fast glycolytic
    • white fibers
    • quick to fatique
    • glycogen rich
    • quick, sudden efforts
    • anaerobic
  107. Type IIC Skeletal Muscle Fiber
    • mixture of I + IA
    • uncommon
  108. Cardiac Muscle Features
    • central nucleus
    • intercallated disks
    • branching
    • diad
  109. lipofuscin
    buildup of old lysosomes
  110. caveola
    permanent sarcolemma invaginations in smooth muscle (similar to T tubules)
  111. Radial Glial Guides
    specialized supportive cells that help the nervous system to develop
  112. Nissl body
    RER + ribosomes + ribonucleoproteins
  113. Multipolar neuron
    1 axon, multiple dendrites (MOTOR)
  114. bipolar neuron
    1 axon, 1 dendrite (INTERNEURON)
  115. Unipolar neuron
    1 axon, cell body (SENSORY)
  116. microglia
    phagocytic CNS cells
  117. Shwann vs Oligodendrocyte
    • Shwann cells- PNS
    • Oligodendrocytes- CNS
  118. Astrocytes
    • Fibrous: in white matter between myelenated nerve fibers
    • Protoplasmic: in gray matter , participates in metabolite exchange via blood supply for neurons
  119. Blood Brain Barrier
    protects the CNS from fluctuating levels of electrolytes, hormones, and tissue metabolites circulating in the blood vessels
  120. hydrocephalus
    enlargement of head due to decreased absorption yet constant production of CSF
  121. Ependymal cells
    produce CSF
  122. Types of Synapses
    • Electrical: gap junctions (ex: heart)
    • Chemical: motor end plate
  123. Meninges
    • Pia mater- collagen, elastin
    • Arachnoid mater- fibrous
    • Dura- dense fibro,elastic
  124. Choroid Plexus
    • vascular structure that produces CSF and lined by ependymal cells
    • found in 3rd and 4th ventricle of brian
    • contains no BBB
  125. Tanycyte
    type of ependymal cell that forms "endfeet" on blood vessels and attach to each other via tight jnxs
  126. Development of Myelin Sheath
    • 1- axon enveloped by Shwann Cell
    • 2- mesaxon forms- shwann cells make endge to edge contact as it wraps around
    • 3- mesaxon continues to spiral and fuse forming and inner and outer mesaxon
  127. Division of Autonomic system
    • conducts impulses to smooth, cardiac, and glandular muscles
    • sympathetic: thoracolumbar outflow (norepeinephrine)
    • parasympathetic: craniosacral (Ach)
  128. Guillian Barre Syndrome (Landry's Paralysis)
    • PNS demylination
    • ascending paralysis starting at feed radiating to trunk but does not cause nerve damage
  129. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
    • aka Lou Gehrigs disease
    • progressive loss of motor neurons
    • results in muscular atrophy
  130. Parkinsons disease
    loss of dopamine secreting cells and increase in glial cells
  131. myasthenia gravis
    • affects neuromuscular jnx
    • impairs transmission of nerve impulses
    • autoimmune attack of Ach receptors
  132. Chondronectin
    adhesive glycoprotein of in ECM
  133. Terretorial Matrix
    surrounds lacunae, rich in proteoglycans
  134. Interterretorial Matrix
    distant from chondrocytes, rich in collagen
  135. Isogenous group
    clusters of chondrocytes
  136. Interstitial vs Appositional growth
    • interstitial- outward growth (length)
    • appositional= inward growth (width)
  137. Nucleus Pulposa
    Type II (elastic) replaced with Type I (fibro) with aging
  138. Periosteum (2 layers)
    • outter fibrous layer
    • inner cellular layer: osteogenic layer
  139. What is inside lacunae?
    osteoCYTEs
  140. Calcitonin
    • tones down blood calcium
    • stimulates osteoblasts to build bone
    • receptors on osteoclasts
  141. Whats in Howship's lacunae?
    osteoCLASTS
  142. Trabecular Bone
    • aka spongy bone
    • aka cancellous bone
  143. Endosteum
    bone marrow
  144. Volksman's canal
    perpendicular to Haversian canals and serves to connect them
  145. Regions of a Long Bone
    • Epiphysis
    • Metaphysis
    • Diaphysis
  146. Primary vs Secondary Bone
    • Primary: immature osteoid
    • --low mineral content
    • --high osteocyte content
    • --irregular collagen bundles

    • Secondary: mature bone
    • --high mineral content
    • --parallel arrangement of collagen
    • --osteocytes in lacunae
  147. Intramembranous ossificiation
    • mesenchymal tissue > bone tissue
    • just one primary ossification center
    • ex: skull flatbones
  148. Endochondrial Ossification
    • mesenchymal tissue > cartillage tissue> replaced by bone
    • primary (diaphysis)
    • ....and secondary (epiphhysis) ossification center
    • ex: long/short bones
  149. Primary Ossification Process
    • chondrocytes hypertrophy @ bone collar
    • primary ossification center forms -- blood supply to center diaphysis
    • perichondrium becomes periosteum
    • bone collar forms
    • chondrocytes die, leaving behind bone marrow space
    • osteoblasts form bone matrix on cartillage model
    • growth, thickening towards epiphysis, resporption towards diaphysis
  150. 5 Cellular Zones of Epiphyseal Plate Growth
    • Resting (reserve)
    • proliferation (hyperplastic)
    • hypertrophy (maturation)
    • calcification
    • ossification
  151. Osteoprotegrin
    acts on PTH
  152. Arthritis
    Gout
    Rheumatoid arthritis
    • arthritis- degredation of joints and articular cartillage
    • gout- inflammation due to uric acid deposits in joints and soft tissue
    • rheumatodi arthritis- synovitis
  153. acromegaly vs gigantisism
    • acromegaly- overgrowth in adults
    • gigantisism- overgrowth in kids
  154. Nanism
    dwarfism (4'10)
  155. Respiratory Epithelium
    Pseudostratified Columnar w Cilia
  156. General Functions:
    Simple cuboidal and columnar
    squamous
    • secretion/absorption
    • protection/barrier
  157. Locations of stratified Squamous
    • Oral cavity
    • Vagina
    • epidermis
  158. Locations of simplecolumnar
    • gallbladder
    • GI tract
  159. carcinoma vs adenoma vs adenocarcinoma vs sarcoma
    • carcinoma: neoplasia of epithelia
    • adenoma: neoplasia of glands
    • adenocarcinoma: neoplasia of gland originating from epithelia
    • sarcoma: tumor of CT
  160. hemidesmosomes vs focal adhesions
    • hemi: anchor intermediate filaments to BM
    • focal adhesions: anchor actin to BM
  161. Where is stereocillia found?
    • very long microvilli
    • male reproductive system and inner ear
  162. Situs inversus
    usually accompanies patients with Kartangers Syndrome
  163. Kinocilium
    • 9+0 microtubules
    • sensory transduction
  164. CT proper
    • dense (regular/irregular)
    • loose
    • reticular
    • elastic
  165. specialized CT
    adipose, blood, bone, cartillage
  166. Embryonic CT
    • mesenchymal
    • mucosal
  167. Connective tissue layers of muscle
    • Epimysium: covers entire muscle
    • Perimysium: covers muscle fascile
    • Endomysium: convers muscle fiber
  168. Re-innervation Concept
    If red fiber is denervated and you reinvervate it with a white fiber, it will become a white fiber
  169. Ratio of thin to thick filaments. Reason?
    • thin to thick = 6:1
    • hexagonal arrangememnt allows use of least # of filaments for maximum force output
  170. Which filaments shorten during sarcomere contraction? Which stay the same?
    • H-only thick in middle , shortens
    • I- only thin at edge, shortens

    A- entire thick filament, stays the same
  171. Components of Intercallated Disk
    • tight junction
    • desmosomes
    • basal lamina
  172. What are the striated muscles?
    smooth and cardiac
  173. What are the multinucleated muscles?
    skeletal
  174. What is the only organelle found in the axon?
    mitochondria
  175. CNS vs PNS myelination
    • CNS- oligodendrocyte - one cell myelinates many axons
    • PNS- shwann cell- one cell myelinates single axon
  176. Difference b/w Dorsal and Autonomic Root ganglia?
    • DRG: psuedounipolar (sensory)
    • ARG: multipolar (motor)
  177. How many layers are in the Cerebral Cortex?
    Where are the pyrimidal cells?
    What are the regions?
    • 6 layers
    • pyramidal: 3 & 5
    • 3 regions:
    • --molecular :perkinje dendrites
    • --perkinje: perkinje cells [FOUND IN CEREBELLUM]
    • --granular: perkinje axons
  178. Components of BBB
    • endothelium
    • tight junctions
    • basal lamina
  179. Wallerian Degeneration
    degeneration of axon distal to site of injury
  180. Chromatolysis
    loss of nissl substance from cell body
  181. Describe Loose Areolar CT
    • lots of cells, lots of blood vessels
    • fills in spaces b.w other tissues
  182. 3 steps of inflammation:
    • 1 Extravsion of Neutrophils:
    • --histamine produces selectin receptors that bind to selectin on neutrophils
    • --chemokines produce integrin receptors that slow down the neutrophils
    • 2 transmigration: diapadesis of neutrophil via pseudopod
    • 3 chemotaxis: follow chemical gradient to injury site
  183. last mitotic step of granulipoesis and 1st stage of secondary granules
    eosinic myelocyte
  184. describe osteoclasts
    • large
    • multinucleated
    • in Howships
  185. Lamins A B and C
    • when A and C are phosphorylated, the nuclear membrane lamin network dissociatees to promote mitosis
    • ---lamin B holds the fragments of this process

    reassembles after mitosis via dephosphorylation
  186. Cyclin regulators of Cell Cycle
    D, E, A , B
  187. CDK 1 and 2
    • CDK1- activates proteins of mitosis
    • CDK 2- activates proteins of S phase
  188. What are the tumor supressor proteins and where do they exist?
    • Rb
    • p53 (p21)

    @ G1 checkpoint
  189. Rb
    • tumor supressor gene
    • normally dephosphorylated (active state)
    • represses transcribition by binding to E2F
  190. p53
    • active when DNA is damaged...and causes p53 phosphorylation
    • p53 stimulates CDK inhibitor p21
    • cell either repairs or apoptosis
    • cause of 50% of all cancers
  191. Necrosis vs Apoptosis
    • Necrosis:
    • pathological
    • group of cells die
    • membrane explosion
    • neighboring cells can damage
    • causing inflammation

    • Apoptosis:
    • physiological
    • affects individual cells
    • membrane blebs off (implosion)
    • neighbors are not damaged (bc its imploded)
    • no inflammation
    • due to phosphatidylsering going from Pface oto Eface
  192. Acute Inflammation
    • vascular dilation
    • neutrophils adhere to endothelum (pavementing/margination)
    • neutrophils move from vessels to tissues (chemotaxis)
    • fluid accumulates in interstitium
    • resolution - infection phagocytosed, pus
  193. Types of acute inflammation vs chronic inflammation
    • acute: suppurative (purulent), serous, fibrous
    • chronic: grunulomatous, ulcerative
  194. If you see a cell body in a slide...
    • if it is unorganized that you are in the gray matter of spinal cord
    • and presence of cell body eliminates white matter
  195. Identify PNS via...
    • look for distinct CT capsules
    • very round cell bodies surrounded by satellite cells
    •  
  196. What produces the peristaltic action of the Esophagus?
    the myenteric (auerbach) plexus between inner circular and outter longtitunial muscularis externa
  197. Layers of organs
    • Epithelium
    • Lamina Propria
    • Muscularis Mucosa

    • submucosa
    • muscularis externa (inner circular)
    • muscularis externa (outter longtitudinal)

    adventita
  198. Identify chief cells from parietal cells
    • chief cells: very small and dark (look like platelets)
    • parietal cells: look like fried eggs (lighter)
  199. Plicae Circularis
    • in the duodenum
    • extends to mucosa and submucosa
  200. Where are Panneth Cells found?
    • Crypts of Leburkuhn (of intestines)
    • not usually in duodenum but increases from jejunum to illeum
  201. Enteroendocrince Glands
    • Hormone-secreting
    • cells (endocrine function)

    • Secretes
    • CCK, secretin, gastric inhibitory peptide, vasoactive
    • intestinal peptide, etc.
  202. Endocrine Pancreas
    • alpha cells- glucagon- periphery
    • beta cells- insulin- central
    • delta cells- somatostatin-dispersed- controls alpha and beta
    • pp cells (f cells)- pancreatic polypeptide
    • g cells- gastrin
    • c cells- immature islets
  203. exocrine pancreas
    • secretes cck and secretin
    • trypsinogen > trypsin [via enterokinase from duodenum]
    • trypsin then cleaves the following:
    • chymotrypsinogen
    • procarboxypeptidase
    • prophospholipase a2
  204. Liver fnxs
    • producs albumin
    • fat soluble vitamins ADEK
    • produces bile
  205. Classic Liver lobule
    • blood drainage to central vein
    • hexagonal w central vein in center
    • portal vein> sinusoids> central vein > hepatic eins
  206. Portal Lobule of liver
    • bile secretion (exocrine)
    • triangular
    • central veins make apecies
    • center = portal space
  207. Liver Acinus
    • diamond/egg shaped?
    • 2 central veins make the long axis
    • 2 portal triads make short axis
    • Zone 1 closest to triad (alcohol damage)
    • zone 3 closest to central vein (necrosis)
  208. Space of Disse
    b/w hepatocyte and enothelial sinus
  209. kupffer cells
    macrophages of liver in sinusoids
  210. ito cells
    • stellate cells of kupffer
    • fat soluble storing cells
  211. pit cells
    • natural killer cells- kills viruses and cancer cells
    • in sinusoids
  212. space of mall
    b/w portal triad and immediately surrounding hepatocytes
  213. cholelithiasis
    gallstones from excessive cholesterol and indadequate bile slats
  214. Divisions of Circulatory System
    • cardiovascular
    • lymphatic
  215. Weibel Palade Bodies
    • Found in endothelial cells (EXCEPT CAPILLARIES!)

    • Have Von Willebrand factor that binds Factor VIII

    •Promotes Coagulation
  216. Elastic Artery
    • tunica media: 40-70 layers of elastic fibers (THICK, type III collagen - reticulin)
    • aorta, subclavian, corotid, brachiocephallic, common illiacs
  217. Muscular arteries
    • aka medium arteries
    • distinct EEL and IEL
    • 8-40 layers of smooth muscle
    • radial, ulnar, femoral, tibial (distributing arteries)
  218. Arterioles
    • BP determinants (most resistance)
    • 1-2 layers of smooth muscle
    • meta arterioles- precapillary sphincters
  219. Capillaries
    endothelium + basal lamina
  220. Continuous Capillaries
    • aka somatic
    • pericytes
    • continuous basal lamina and tight junctions
    • MUSCLES LUNGS CNS BBB
  221. fenestrated capillaries
    • aka visceral
    • continuous basal lamina
    • pores in endothelial wall with diaphragms
    • kidneys, gut, choroid plexus [endocrine organs]
  222. Discontinuous
    • Sinusoidal
    • discontunous basal lamina and endothelial cells
    • fenestrations with no diaphragms
    • LIVER SPLEEN BONEMARROW
  223. Veins vs Arteries
    • veins have thick adventitia
    • arteries have thick media
  224. Pericardial layers
    • visceral- serous
    • parietal- fibrous
  225. Cardiac layers
    • Endocardium- simple squamous, has subendothelial layer with purkinje fibers
    • myocardium- heart muscles (thickness varies), intercalated disks, vascularized
    • epicardium- single mesothelum on loose CT with white adipose
  226. What 2 cartillages cannot undergo appositional growth?
    • appositional growth (width) requires perichondrium
    • fibrocartillage and articular cartillage lack perichondrium
  227. 1st sign bone lengthening is complete
    zone of proliferation stops growing
  228. Cartillage vs CT
    • Cartillage- avascular
    • CT- has blood vessels
  229. How do you distinguish the Vena Cava?
    it is the only structure that can have longtitudinal muscle in the tunica adventitia
  230. Which 3 vessels do not have the 3 tunics?
    • arterioles
    • capillaries
    • post capillary venules
  231. Weibel Palade bodies
    • induce clotting
    • factor 8 (von willebrand factor)
    • released upon vessel injury
    • NOT IN CAPILLARIES!
  232. Why do Purkinje fibrers stain pale?
    have less glycogen and myofibrils than rest
  233. Epicardium has a lot of ...?
    adipose cells
  234. Blood flow
    large elastic arteries > medium muscular arteries > small arteries > arterioles> capillaries> post capillary venules > small veins > medium veins > large muscular veins
  235. EM pictures are likely to be...
    capillaries
  236. Pericyte
    • Rouget cell
    • on surface of cappilaries for support
    • can differentiate if necessary
  237. post capillary venule
    • looks like a tumor lollipop thing
    • high endothelial venules
    • allow WBCs to pass b.w cells and enter CT
    • extend inwards
  238. Osmium Tetroxide stains...
    • black
    • myelin of peripheral nerves
  239. Van Gieson stain
    elastic fiber brown stain
  240. DAVE
    • dorsal afferent
    • ventral efferent

    ventral = alpha 1 motor neurons
  241. Vesicle Transport
    • exocytosis - calcium dependent
    • endocytosis- clathrin receptor dependent (specific)
    • pinocytosis- actin dependent
    • phagocytosis- non specific
  242. Spinal cord sulcus
    on ventral side
  243. What do the differnt WBCs fight?
    • neutrophils: bacteria
    • lymphocytes: viruses
    • eosinophils: parasites
    • basophils: allergies

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