MSA1: Skeletal Stxrs/Bones of Axial Skeleton

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MSA1: Skeletal Stxrs/Bones of Axial Skeleton
2011-03-07 17:47:30

LP # 3 & 4 - Terms used to describe Skeletal Structures and Bones of Axial Skeleton
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  1. Condyle
    a rounded prominence that usually articulate with another bone
  2. Crest
    A narrow sharp ridge
  3. Epicondyle
    a projection situated above a condyle
  4. Facet
    a small, nearly flat surface
  5. Fissure
    a cleft or groove
  6. Fontanel
    a soft spot in the skull where a membrane covers the spaces between the skull
  7. Foramen
    an opening through a bone that usually serves as a passageway for blood vessels, nerves, or ligaments
  8. Fossa
    a large pit or depression
  9. Fovea
    a small pit or depression
  10. Head
    an enlargement of the end of a bone (typically articular)
  11. Linea
    a narrow ridge (straight line)
  12. Process
    A prominent projection on a bone
  13. Ramus
    a branch or similar extension
  14. Sinus
    A hole within a bone
  15. Spine
    a thorn-like projection
  16. Suture
    an interlocking line of union between bones (eg- frontal suture in skull)
  17. Trochanter
    A large process
  18. Tuberosity
    A bigger process usually larger than the tubercle
  19. Cranial Bones (6)
    • Frontal Bone
    • Parietal Bone
    • Occipital Bone
    • Temporal Bone
    • Sphenoid Bone
    • Ethmoid Bone
  20. Frontal Bone
    • (cranial bone)
    • forms forehead and roof of orbits and nasal cavity
    • Special features: frontal sinuses and supraorbital foramen
  21. Parietal Bone
    • (cranial bone)
    • Posterior to Frontal bone: joins frontal bone at CORONAL suture
    • Forms sides of skull
    • Parietal bones joined at SAGITTAL suture
    • Joins Occiput bone at LAMBDOIDAL suture
  22. Occipital Bone
    • (cranial bone)
    • Back of skull and most of the base of cranium
    • Special feature: foramen magnum and external occipital protuberance (EOP)
  23. Temporal Bone
    • (cranial bone)
    • Inferior to Parietal bones
    • Forms sides of skull
    • Special Features: External Auditory Meatus (EAM), Styloid Process, Mastoid Process
  24. Sphenoid Bone
    • (cranial bone)
    • Floor of the Cranium- wedged in anterior part of cranium
    • 2 Wings: Lesser Wing, Greater Wing (looks like a butterfly)
    • Special Features: Sphenoid Sinuses
  25. Ethmoid Bone
    • (cranial bone)
    • Floor of Cranium, anterior to sphenoid bone
    • Special Features: Ethmoid Sinuses
  26. Facial Bones (5)
    • Maxillary
    • Zygomatic
    • Lacrimal
    • Nasal
    • Mandible
  27. Maxillary Bone
    • (facial bone)
    • upper jaw
    • forms hard palate (roof of mouth), floor orbits, and floor/sides of nasal cavity
    • Contains sockets for ____ teeth
    • *Maxillary sinuses (floor of orbit to upper teeth)
  28. Zygomatic Bones
    • (facial bones)
    • "cheek bone"
    • joins temporal bone to form "zygomatic arch"
  29. Lacrimal Bones
    • forms medial portion of orbits
    • provides small passage way from eye to nasal cavity- allows tears to flow into nasal cavity
  30. Nasal Bones
    • (facial bones)
    • forms the bridge of nose
    • rectangle bones fused at midline
  31. Mandible
    • (facial bone)
    • only movable bone of facial skeleton
    • lower jawbone
  32. Vertebral Column
    • Forms vertical axis of skeleton
    • Composed of 26 vertebrae (adults) separated by intervertebral discs (fibrocartilage)
    • Protects spinal cord
    • 4 curvatures (thoracic/pelvic=concave ant) (cervical/lumbar=convex ant.)
  33. Body (of vertebra)
    anterior portion: intervertebral discs
  34. Pedicles
    form sides of vertebral foramen
  35. Laminae
    fuse to become spinous process
  36. Vertebral Arch
    made up of pedicles, laminae, and spinous processes: around vertebral foramen
  37. Transverse Process (TVP)
    between pedicles and laminae: posterior bony projections
  38. Superior and inferior articulating processes
    Cartilage covered facets- joins vertebrae above and below
  39. Intervertebral Foramina (IVF)
    lower surface of pedicles: opening for spinal nerves
  40. # Cervical Vertebrae
    7 (form axis of neck)
  41. # of Thoracic Vertebrae
    12 (pointed spinous process)
  42. # of Lumbar Vertebrae
  43. Sacrum
    5 fused vertebrae
  44. Coccyx
    4 fused vertebrae
  45. What bones make up the Thoracic Cage
    • Ribs
    • Thoracic Vertebrae
    • Sternum
    • Costal Cartilage
  46. Ribs
    • 12 sets:
    • 1st 7= true ribs
    • 8-12= false (11 & 12= floating)
  47. Sternum (3 parts)
    • Manubrium- upper
    • Body- middle
    • Xiphoid Process- bottom
  48. Sternal Angle
    formed by jxn of manubrium and body of sternum
  49. Sternal Notch
    superior border of manubrium