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What are 6 benefits from use of sharp manual instruments?
- Efficient scaling
- minimal tissue trauma
- increased tactile sensitivity
- greater control of the instrument
- fewer strokes required=less fatigue for clinician
- less possibility of burnishing the calculus
What are 4 consequences of using dull manual instruments?
- stress and frustration of using ineffective instruments and wasted time
- loss of control and increased likelyhood of slipping and lacerating tissue
- loss of pts confidence in clinician's ability
- increased likelihood of developing work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMDs) or RPI
What typs of stone is coarse, used for extensive reshaping of improperly sharpened or extremely dull, worn cutting edges, and is lubricated with water?
composition synthetic stones
What type of stone is medium, used for reshaping of dull cutting edges, and is lubricated with water or oil?
india synthetic stones
Which type of stone is fine, used for routine sharpening of well-maintained cutting edges, or finishing after use of coarse or medium grain stones, and is lubricated with oil?
arkansas natural stone
Which type of stone is fine, used for routine sharpening of well-maintained cutting edges, or finishing after use of coarse or medium grain stones, and is lubricated with water?
ceramic synthetic stones
Which type of stone is quarried from mineral deposites? What is an example?
- natural abrasive stones
Which type of stone is hard, nonmetallic substances impregnated with aluminum oxide, silicone carbide, or diamond particles? Give examples
- artificial materials
- ruby stone
- carborundum stone
- diamond hoe
- ceramic aluminum oxide
- steel alloys (harder than most dental instrument steel)
Sharpening stones as they are manufactured for use may be classified into two general groups which are:
- unmounted: for manual sharpening
- mandrel-mounted: for power-driven sharpening
What are 2 types of unmounted stones?
- Flat stones: for special adaptation of curved blades
- cylindrical: (tapered or strait)
What is an example of a mandrel mounted stone category?
cylindrical (srait or tapered) small stones of various diameters
What is the surface of the stone made up of? And what is the purpose?
- masses of minute crystals
- they are the abrasive particles that accomlish the grinding of the instrument
What is a stone surface that has smaller crystal particle size called? What is it for?
- finer grain
- abrades, or reduces more slowly to produce a finer cutting edge
What is a very fine line formed where the face and lateral surface meet at an angle? It has length, but no thickness?
true or false. the cutting edge becomes dull when pressed against a hard surface, or may be nicked when drawing over a rough surface. A dull edge is rounded and has thickness.
both are true
What is the objective in sharpening?
to reshape the cutting edge to a fine line
What are 2 tests for instrument sharpness?
- visual or glare test
- plastic testing stick
In using the visual or glare test, how can you tell an instrument is dull?
it presents a rounded, shiny surface which reflects light
In the plastic testing stick, how can you tell an instrument is dull?
the dull edge does not catch without undue pressure and slides easily over the surface of the stick
Why is the entire length of the cutting edge always sharpened?
to maintain its original form
What are 2 good reasons to have a sterilized sharpening stone?
- so instruments may be sharpened throughout the procedure
- increases efficiency
true or false. sterilization of stones uses methods in accord with specific MANUFACTURER'S INSTRUCTIONS
true or false. Over time, the steam autoclave may dry out an arkansas stone and lead to chipping or breakage
What are 4 advantages of using dry stone?
- prevents contamination
- sharpens the cutting edge without nicks in the blade
- allows the stone to be completely sterilized
- better for use during pt care
What are 4 purposes for using lubricated stone?
- prevents stone from drying out
- facilitates movement of instrument
- prevents scratching of the stone
- better for use on sterilized instruments
What are 2 objectives of instrument sharpening?
- produce a sharp cutting edge
- preserve the original shape of the instrument
What is an indication of when to sharpen instruments? Why?
- sharpen at first sign of dullness
- restoring original contour to a grossly dull instrument leaves a blade that is non functional and therefore, useless
What are three main things to maintain during the sharpening procedure?
- even pressure
What are 4 aspects of finishing instruments?
- inspect edges
- check for wire edges
- remove wire edges
- wipe clean (with dry gauze, or alcohol)
What are 2 indications that instruments have been worn down and are no longer useable?
- blades will no longer access or adapt to the tooth surface
- thinner blades are mosre susceptible to breakage with lateral pressure
When do you discard instruments?
if they have outlived their usefulness with shrotened blades that cannot access proximal surfaces sufficiently
Which edges are sharpened on each of the following instruments?
curets: area specific
- cutting edges on both sides of the face
- cutting edges on both sides of the face, and the toe (3 step)
- cutting edge on one side of the face, and the toe (2 step) sharpen the longer cutting edge, usually farthest from the handle
true or false. The moving flast stone: stationary instrument applies to both curets and scalers
In the moving flat stone: stationary instrument technique, the internal angle of the blade at the cutting edge is what?
In the moving flat stone: stationary instrument technique, what angle is the stone placed?
Which incorrect angulation fro the moving flat stone would result in the use of heavy lateral pressure and would be difficult to adapt?
angulation greater than 80
which incorrect angulation of the moving flat stone would result in weakened working end fractureing easily, the cutting edge will dull very easily?
angulation less than 70
What are 4 main steps in activating the sharpening stone in the moving stone technique?
- maintain the stone in contact with the blade and at proper angle
- tighten grasp on instrument (palm grasp in nondominant hand) and apply smooth even pressure
- move stone up and down with short strokes about 1/2 inch high, place more pressure on down stroke
- finish each area with down stroke
How is the instrument held in the stationary flat stone: moving instrument technique?
modified pen grasp
In the stationary flat stone method, what angle is formed by the stone and face?
What type of pressure is applied in the stationary flat stone method while the instrument is in motion?
moderate to light, but firm
In which type of sharpening method are cylindrical arkansas (tapered or strait), or rectangular with rounded edges, and tapered carborundum stones used?
In the sharpening cone procedure, the instrument is held in the ______ hand across palm with fingers and palms grasping _______. direct the toe of the blade towards ___- wieh face of the blade up and __________ with the floor
What are 2 main steps in the MOTION of the sharpening cone procedure?
- rotate stone counter clockwise over instrument with even, firm pressure
- continue rotation of the stone UPWARD
What are 2 types of mandrel mounted stones?
- arkansas: fine grain
- ruby stone: coarser grain (should be used conservatively, unless with extrememly dull instrument)
Describe the shape of the mandrel mounted stones
cylindrical with flat end or cone shape
What are 3 main uses for mandrel mounted stones?
- applicable to most cutting edges
- course-grained ruby stone may be useful for reshaping
- stones are sterilized and may be used with water for cooling
Describe the 2 main steps in the sharpening procedure using the mandrel mounted stone.
- position: hold in palm grasp with blade facing up; hold handpiece in other hand using palm grasp with thumbs secured against eachother; apply sont to surface with light, even pressure
- motion: use low speed to minimized heat production and allow complete control; apply light pressure to prevent reduction; maintain blad shape, and prevent tapering off and reshaping tip
What are 3 disadvantages in using the power-driven sharpening? (mandrel-mounted)
- inconsistent results
- excess reduction of instrument during shorter period of use
- frictional heat may affect the temper of the steel
What are 3 'different' scaler types that can be sharpened? (using different techniques?
- file scaler
- hoe scaler
- chisel scaler
What are file scalers sharpened with?
a tanged file with the use of magnification and good illumination
When sharpening the file scaler, the head of the working end should be positioned _______. Note the two angular surfaces that meet to form a __ shape. The surface to be contacted wth the tanged file and ground during sharpening is the surface of the V that is _______________.
true or false. 2 or 3 passess with the tanged file for the file scaler are usually sufficient to bring each edge back to sharpness
the hoe surface has ____ _________ to be ground. Because placement of the small surface on the flat stone is difficult to visualize, ________ is needed
How is the instrument to be held in sharpening of the hoe scaler?
modified pen grasp
What angle should the hoe scaler be to the sharpener?
Which two instruments need to have rounded corners when sharpening?
hoe and chisel scalers
true or false, sharpening procedures for the chisel are similar to the hoe scaler.
How will a dull explorer appear?
when examined under concentrated light, a dull explorer tip appears rounded
How will a dull explorer act on a plastic testing stick?
it does not catch, it slides
In sharpening an explorere, a _____ stone is used. the instrument is held with a ___________ grasp. Placement and movement of the tip over the stone resemble the procedure for _______. place side of tip on stone at __ - __ angle of stone with shank of explorer.
- modified pen
How do you prepare a flat arkansas stone for sterilization?
submerge in ultrasonic cleaner or scrub with soap and hot water to remoe metal particles left from sharpening
What is used to remove stain or 'glaze' by metal particles ground into the surface of the arkansas stone?
How should the arkansas stone be stored?
deep in sealed, sterilized package for sharpening at instrumentation preparation area
true or false. Mounted arkansas stone has same basic care procedures as flat stone
What are 3 main steps in care for the ruby mounted stone?
- clean by scrubbing with soap and water
- maintain an ungrooved surface by applying the stone to a joe dandy disc
- sterilize in a sealed bag
What are 4 common sharpening errors?
- alteration of working end: excessive removal of metal; making it thinner and shorter toe may be sharpened to a point
- unnecessary metal removal: the working end has been excessively shortened in length
- Altered shape: only the tip and middle third of sickle scaler were sharpened, the whole edge should be, resulted in straight cutting edges, they should be curved
- Flattened cutting edge: nonworking cuttin ege of area-specific curet was sharpened, created a strait lateral surface and pointed tip
Name 7 features of area specific curets.
- functional shank
- supra and sub
- one working cutting edge
- instrument face
- self angulates
- standard working end
- rigid working end
Where is the area of application for gracey 1 and 2 and gracey 3 and 4?
Anterior teeth: all tooth surfaces
What is the area of application for gracey 5 and 6?
- Anterior teeth: all surfaces
- Premolars: all tooth surfaces
- Molar teeth: facial, lingual, and mesial surfaces
What is the area of application for gracey 7 and 8 and 9 and 10?
- Anterior: all surfaces
- Premolar: all surfaces
- Posterior teeth: facial and lingual surfaces
What is the area of application for gracey 11 and 12?
- Anterior: mesial and distal
- Polsterior: mesial, facial, and lingual surfaces
What is the area of application for gracey 13 and 14?
- Anterior teeth: mesial and distal
- Posterior teeth: distal
What is the area of application for gracey 15 and 16?
Posterior teeth: facial, lingual, and mesial surfaces
What is the area of application for gracey 17 and 18?
Posterior teeth: distal
Which two gracey instruments were not part of the original gracey series?
15 and 16 and 17 and 18
How can you identify the correct working end of a gracey for anterior teeth?
when the working-end is adapted to the facial (or lingual) surface, the face of correct working end tilts slightly toward the tooth
How can you identify the correct working end of a gracey for posterior teeth?
- When the working end is adapted to the distal surface, the correct working edn has the following relationship:
- lower shank is parallel to the distal surface
- functional shank goes up and over the tooth