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Air into and out of the lungs. it depends on the volume of the lungs and the pressure gradient.
exchange of gas between the alveoli and blood.
exchange of gases between the blood and the tissues.
- if you need to change the pressure change the container.
- pressure= 1/volume if you change the volume then you change the pressure.
also called eupnea iss caused by the contraction of the diaphram and the external intercostal.
relaxed expiration is caused by 3 factors
- 1) muscle tissue relaxation and recoil
- 2) lung tissue- the recoil of the connective tissue that surrounds the alveoli, its elastic in nature so it wants to recoil back into its regular shape
- 3) Lung tissue- surface tension, water is a polar molicule thats attracted to itself creating a pressure that wants to pull everything together, the lungs create a detergant that breaks up the polarity and allows you to breath in or else your lungs would just collapse (thats what happens to premes.
- inspiration uses the muscles diaphram, external intercostal, scalane, pectoralis minor, sternocliedomastoid.
- Experation uses the muscles- abdomin (rectus abdominous, external and internal oblique, and internal intercostals.
vital to keep the lungs at a low 756- 754 mmhg so that the lungs dont collapse (think the jagged knife and the piece of plastic to cover it up to keep the pressure normal)
- how easy the lungs and thoracic wall can be expanded.
- high compliance- expands easily
- low compliance- doesnt expand easily
- you can reduce compliance by scar tissue, fluid in the lungs and reduced production of surfactant.
the amount of pressure created by each type of gas in a mixture. Think HENRYS LAW!!!
- when a gas under pressure comes in contact with a liquid a gas is dissolved in the liquid until equilibrium is reached.
- The amount of gas that dissolves into a solution is proportional to the partial pressure of that gas above the solution.
control of respiration
- medulla oblongata- inspiratory rhythmicy center, RR=12-15
- pons- 2 groups of nucli
factors that influence the RR
- central chemoreceptors checks the H+ ion sensor
- Brain stem monitors PCO2 levels indirectly by carbonic acid.
heme-holds iron- holds 4 O2 and there are millions of hemoglobin molecules pure red blood cell.
CO2 is transported in 3 ways
- 23% carried by the protien in the blood (hemoglobin)
- 7% of CO2 is dissolved into the plasma of the blood
- 70% in the form of bicarbonate ions (HCO3-)