Reaction against polyphonic vocal music, resulted in monody, focus on contrast in the arts, rise of the middle class resulted in more amateurs musicians.
a solo singer provides the predominant sound, accompaniment, homophonic texture.
Continous Bass. A bass part performed by (1) a chordal instrument such as key board instrument or a lute and (2) a bass instrument such as a cello, viola da gamba, or bassoon that reinforces the bass line.
a drama set to music and made up of vocal pieces such as rescitatives, arias, duets, trios, and ensembles with orchestral accompaniment, and orchestral overtures and interludes. Scenary, stage actions, and costuming are employed.
a form of "singing speech" in which the rhythmn is dictated by the natural inflection of the words.
a composition for solo voice and instrumental accompaniment.
the orchestral introduction to a musical dramatic work.
a male singer who is castrated before puberty so that his voice will remails the same. Often sang hero roles for baroque opera and were hired by the catholic church, which did not want women to sing in the church services.
an extended choral work made up of recitatives, arias, and choruses, WITHOUT costuming, stage action, or scenary.
In Churches, Vernacular texts related to special days. solovoicesand sometimes chorus, Basso Continuo
a piece characterized by displays of virtuosity that made it seem to the listener that the music was spontaneously flowing from the player at the moment in style.
generally free in form and improvisatory in style
a piece full of scale passages, rapid runs, and thrills and massive chords
a compostition that uses imitative polyphonice and is organized around the returns of a theme or suject and a counter subject that often appears with it.
in a fugue, the principal theme, introduced first in a single voice and then imitated in other voices, returning frequently during the course of the composition.
in a fugue, new melodic material stated in counter-point with the subject.
a seriers of instrumental movements each based on a particular dance rhythm.
an instrumental work consisting of 3 or 4 contrasting movements.
a work for one or more solo instruments and orchestra.
numbers of movements in a concerto
multimovement work that consists of only ONE instrument.
multimovement work for instruments in which a solo group called a conertino and a full ensemble are pitted against eachother.
a performer with complete technical control of the playing of his or her musical instrument.
Italy, Operas, L'Orfeo and The coronations of Poppea.
1685 to 1750, Germany, Earned money as a singer, 22 kids married twice, went blind in old age Sleepers Awake
Born in Germany, Studied in Italy, Lived in England, Messiah
Italy, over 500 concertos, The Four Seasons, "spring"
Classical Period Dates.
End of French Revolution
Classical Period Music
reaction against contrast: emphasis on balance, proportion and tradtition; Industrial Revolution, American Revolution, French Revoltion.
became the most important part of the music in classical period.
a Musical form encompassing one movement of a composition and consisting of three sections-Exposition, Development, and Recapulatution-the last often followed by a coda.
Statement of 2 themes second theme in different key.
A musical idea that serves as a starting point for development of a composition or section of a composition
when the theme is manipulated
go back to the orginal form.
Theme & Variation
a form based on a single theme and its subsequent repeition, with each new statement varied in some way from the original.
a sonata for orchestra.
number of movements in a symphony
Minuet & Trio
a form employed in the 3rd movement of many classical symphonies, cast in a stately triple meter and ternary form (aba)
a section of music, usually in a concerto played in an inprovisatory style by a solo performer WITHOUT orchestral accompaniment. (where soloist can show off)
3 or 4
number of movements in a Sonata
Music written for a small gorup of instruments, with one player to a part..
a chamber ensemble consisting of a first and second Violin, a viola, and a celle; also the form which is a sonata for these instruments.
An extended alternating form often employed in the fouth movement of classical symphonies; generally spirited and play full in Character. (ABACABA)
"Work" catalog number.
Italian Comic Opera
Italian opera with a serious subject.
a large section of a play or an opera.
Austria, Child Prodigy, wrote a lot of Melody, Symphony no. 40
Austria, employed by the weathy Esterhazy Family, Father of the String Quartet, symphonies. The Fare well Piece, String Quartet op.33 no. 3
Germany, age 12 organist, went completely Deaf, Had Perfect Pitch, Expanded the Orchestra.