Tex Psych 101 midterm

Card Set Information

Tex Psych 101 midterm
2011-03-08 00:23:45
fundamentals psychology nature vs nurture biology brain functions brain memory statistics brain structures

fundamentals of psychology midterm review
Show Answers:

  1. Who said "I think therefore I am?"
  2. What is psychology?
    The science of behavior and mental processes.
  3. Who is Wilhelm Wundt?
    German scientist who established the first psych lab. Trained people to describe mental experiences (inner sensations, images, and feelings) through introspection. However, introspection is flawed because it is too subjective, relying on reports of personal perspective
  4. What is Reaction Time?
    Reaction time measures time between perception and reaction
  5. Describe Nature vs Nurture
    Two opposing theories- Nature theory implies that we are born as the people we will become and environment/experience doesn't alter that or has very little affect. Nurture theory implies that we are born blank slates, shaped by the environment in which we are raised.
  6. What are some sub fields of psychology?
    Basic research, applied research, counseling, clinical, psychiatry, social, behaviorists, genetic, cognitive, biological, developmental, industrial-organizational, evolutionary
  7. What is the Hindsight Bias?
    "I knew it all along" phenomenon. Theory states that when one knows the outcome of any situation, they believe they would have predicted same outcome when really no one could have known.
  8. What is Confirmation Bias?
    When we look to answer our assumptions.
  9. What is Illusory Correlation?
    the perception of a relationship where none exists.

    • i.e. People act crazier when there's a full moon. Correlations do not equal causation.
    • Full moon=more light to commit crimes by at night. The moon does not cause the action.
  10. What is Phrenology?
    belief that the bumps on the head could provide insight towards intelligence and personality.
  11. Describe the theory of Localization of Brain Function-
    belief that certain areas of the brain correlate to certain functions
  12. Describe Mass Action theory of the brain-
    idea that brain functions are distributed around the brain (no localization).
  13. What is the function of the Medulla?
    heart beat and breathing; is the base of the brainstem
  14. What is the function of the Reticular Formation?
    arousal and filter of information (cocktail effect)
  15. What is the function of the Thalamus?
    functions as a sensory switchboard, sorting and directing sensory information to the corresponding portion of the brain
  16. What is the function of the Hippocampus?
    memory formation, STM transformation to LTM
  17. What is the function of the Amygdala?
    fight, flight, or fear response. Emotion, fear, aggression. Also adds element of emotion to memory.
  18. What is the function of the Hypothalamus?
    regulates bodily homeostasis, thirst, hunger, body temperature, and sexual desire.
  19. What is the function of the Pituitary?
    the endocrine system's most influential gland. Under the influence of the hypothalamus, the pituitary regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands (Master Gland).
  20. What is the function of the Cerebellum?
    the "little brain" at the rear of the brainstem; functions include some non verbal learning, processing sensory input, and coordinating voluntary movement and balance
  21. What is the Cerebral Cortex divided into?
    • Frontal Lobe- language, thinking, personality, reasoning
    • Temporal Lobe- recognition, auditory processing, STM
    • Occipital Lobe- visual processing
    • Parietal Lobe- spatial organization
    • Sensory Cortex- sensory processing
    • Motor Cortex- voluntary movement
  22. What is the function of the Spinal Cord?
    neural pathway, reflexes
  23. What is the Biopsychosocial Approach or Biological Psychology?
    An integrated approach that incorporates biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis which offers a more complete picture of any given behavior or mental process.

    (Some biological psychologists call themselves behavioral neuroscientists, neuropsychologists, behavior geneticists, physiological psychologists, or biopsychologists)
  24. What is the focus of Neuroscience
    How the body and brain enable emotions, memories, and sensory experiences.

    i.e. How are messages transmitted within the body? How is blood chemistry linked with moods and motives?
  25. What is the focus of Evolutionary Psychology
    How the natural selection of traits promoted the survival of genes.

    i.e. How does evolution influence behavior tendencies?
  26. What is the focus of Behavioral Psychology
    How we learn observable responses.

    i.e. How do we learn to fear particular objects or situations? What is the most effective way to alter our behavior, say, to lose weight or stop smoking?
  27. What is the focus of Behavior Genetics
    How much our genes and our environment influence our individual differences.

    i.e. To what extent are psychological traits such as intelligence, personality, sexual orientation, and vulnerability to depression attributable to our genes? To our environment?
  28. What is the focus of Psychodynamic
    How behavior springs from unconscious drives and conflicts

    i.e. How can someone's personality traits and disorders be explained in terms of sexual and aggressive drives or as the disguised effects of unfulfilled wishes and childhood traumas?
  29. What is the focus of Cognitive Psychology
    How we encode, process, store, and retrieve, information.

    i.e. How do we use information in remembering? Reasoning? Solving problems?
  30. What is the focus of Social-Cultural Psychology
    How behavior and thinking vary across situations and cultures.

    i.e. How are we humans alike as members of one human family As products of different environmental contexts, how do we differ?
  31. Theory-
    an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events.
  32. Hypothesis
    a testable prediction, often implied by a theory
  33. Operational Definition-
    a statement of the procedures (operations) used to define research variables. For examples, human intelligence may be operationally defined as "what an intelligence test measures."
  34. Replication-
    repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances.
  35. Case Study-
    an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles.
  36. Survey-
    a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of a particular group, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of the group.
  37. Population-
    all the cases in a group being studied, from which samples may be drawn. (Note: except for national studies, this does not refer to a country's whole population.)
  38. Random Sample-
    a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion.
  39. Naturalistic Observation-
    observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation.
  40. Correlation-
    the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other. The correlational coefficient is the mathematical expression of the relationship, ranging from -1 to +1.
  41. Experiment-
    a research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors (independent variables) to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process (the dependent variable). By random assignment of participants, the experimenter aims to control other relevant factors.
  42. Random Assignment-
    assigning participants to experimental and control groups by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups.
  43. Experimental Group-
    in an experiment, the group that is exposed to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable.
  44. Control Group-
    in an experiment, the group that is not exposed to the treatment; contrasts with the experimental group and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment
  45. Double-Blind Procedure-
    an experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant (blind) about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo. Commonly used in drug-evaluation studies.
  46. Placebo Effect-
    experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which the recipient assumes is an active agent.
  47. Independent Variable-
    the experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied.
  48. Dependent Variable-
    the outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulation of the independent variable.
  49. Culture-
    the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next.
  50. What is Biological Psychology
    the scientific study of the links between biological (genetic, neural, hormonal) and psychological processes.
  51. What is a Neuron
    a nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system
  52. What is a Dendrite
    the neuron's bushy, branching extensions that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body.
  53. What is an Axon
    the neuron's extension that passes messages through its branching terminal fibers that form junctions with other neurons, muscles, or glands.
  54. What is Action Potential
    a neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon
  55. What is Threshold
    the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse.
  56. What is a Synapse
    the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron. The tiny gap at this junction is call the synaptic gap or synaptic cleft.
  57. What is a Neurotransmitter
    chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gaps between neurons. When released by the sending neuron, neurotransmitters travel along the synapse and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron, thereby influencing whether that neuron will generate a neural impulse.
  58. What is Endorphins
    "morphine within"--natural, opiatelike neurotransmitters linked to pain control and to pleasure
  59. What is the Nervous System
    the body's speedy, electrochemical communication network, consisting of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous systems.
  60. What is the Central Nervous System (CNS)
    the brain and spinal cord
  61. What is the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
    the sensory and motor neurons that connect the CNS to the rest of the body
  62. What are Nerves
    bundled axons that form neural "cables" connecting the CNS with muscles, glands, and sense organs.
  63. What are Sensory Neurons
    neurons that carry incoming information from the sensory receptors to the brain and spinal cord
  64. What are Motor Neurons
    neurons that carry outgoing information from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles and glands.
  65. What are Interneurons
    neurons within the brain and spinal cord that communicate internally and intervene between the sensory inputs and motor outputs.
  66. What is the Somatic Nervous System
    the division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body's skeletal muscles. Also called the skeletal nervous system.
  67. What is the Autonomic Nervous System
    the part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs (such as the heart). It's sympathetic division arouses; its parasympathetic division calms.
  68. What is the Parasympathetic Nervous System
    the division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conserving its energy.
  69. What is a Reflex
    a simple, automatic response to a sensory stimulus, such as a knee-jerk response.
  70. What is the Endocrine System
    the body's "slow" chemical communication system; a set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream.
  71. What are Hormones
    chemical messengers that are manufactured by the endocrine glands, travel through the bloodstream, and affect other tissues.
  72. What are the Adrenal Glands
    a pair of endocrine glands that sit just above the kidneys and secrete hormones (epinephrine and norepinephrine) that help arouse the body in times of stress.
  73. What is a Lesion
    tissue destruction. A brain lesion is a naturally or experimentally caused destruction of brain tissue
  74. What is the Brainstem
    the oldest part and central core of the brain, beginning where the spinal cord swells as it enters the skull; the brainstem is responsible for automatic survival functions.

    Includes: Medulla, Reticular Formation, Pons, Cerebellum, and Thalamus (aka Reptile Brain)
  75. What is the Limbic System
    neural system (including the hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus) located below the cerebral hemispheres; associated with emotions and drives. (AKA Mammalian Brain)
  76. What is the Cerebral Cortex
    the intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells covering the cerebral hemispheres; the body's ultimate control and information processing center
  77. What are Association Areas
    areas of the cerebral cortex that are not involved in primary motor or sensory functions; rather, they are involved in higher mental functions such as learning, remembering, thinking, speaking, and integrating information
  78. What is Aphasia
    impairment of language, usually caused by left-hemisphere damage either to Broca's area (impairing speaking) or to Wernicke's area (impairing understanding)
  79. What is Broca's Area
    controls language expression; an area of the frontal lobe, usually in the left hemisphere, that directs the muscle movements involved in speech
  80. What is Wernicke's Area
    controls language reception; a brain area, usually in the left temporal lobe, that is involved in language comprehension and expression
  81. Describe Plasticity
    the brain's ability to change, especially during childhood, by reorganizing after damage or by building new pathways based on experience
  82. Describe Neurogenesis
    the formation of new neurons
  83. What is the Corpus Callosum
    the large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them.
  84. Describe Split Brain
    a condition resulting from surgery that isolates the brain's two hemispheres by cutting the fibers (mainly those of the corpus callosum) connecting them
  85. Environment-
    every non-genetic influence, from prenatal nutrition to the people and things around us
  86. Behavior Genetics-
    the study of the relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior
  87. Chromosomes-
    threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes
  88. DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)-
    a complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes
  89. Genes-
    the biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes; a segment of DNA capable of synthesizing a protein
  90. Identical Twins-
    twins who develop from a single fertilized egg that splits in two, creating two genetically identical organisms
  91. Fraternal Twins-
    twins who develop from separate fertilized eggs. They are genetically no closer than brothers and sisters, but they share a fetal environment
  92. Temperament-
    a person's characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity
  93. Interaction-
    the interplay that occurs when the effect of one factor (such as environment) depends on another factor (such as heredity)
  94. Evolutionary Psychology-
    the study of the roots of behavior and mental processes, using the principles of natural selection
  95. Natural Selection-
    the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those lead to increased reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations
  96. Mutation-
    a random error in genes replication that leads to a change
  97. Gender-
    in psychology, the biologically and socially influenced characteristics by which people define male and female
  98. Norm-
    an understood rule for accepted and expected behavior. Norms prescribe "proper" behavior
  99. Personal Space-
    the buffer zone we like to maintain around our bodies
  100. Individualism-
    giving priority to one's own goals over group goals and defining one's identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identifications
  101. Collectivism-
    giving priority to group goals (often those of the extended family or work group) and defining one's identity accordingly
  102. Aggression-
    physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt someone
  103. X Chromosome-
    the sex chromosome found in both men and women. Females have two X chromosomes; males have one. An X chromosome from each parent produces a female child.
  104. Y Chromosome-
    the sex chromosome found only in males. When paired with an X chromosome from the mother, it produces a male child
  105. Testosterone-
    the most important of the male sex hormones. Both males and females have it, but the additional testosterone in male stimulates the growth of the male sex organs in the fetus and the development of the male sex characteristics during puberty
  106. Role-
    a set of expectations (norms) about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave
  107. Gender Role-
    a set of expected behaviors for males or for females
  108. Gender Identity-
    our sense of being male or female
  109. Gender Typing-
    the acquisition of traditional masculine or feminine role
  110. Social Learning Theory-
    the theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished
  111. Mode-
    the most frequently occurring score(s) in a distribution
  112. Mean-
    the arithmetic average of a distribution, obtained by adding the scores and then dividing by the number of scores
  113. Median-
    the middle score in a distribution; half the scores are above it and half are below it
  114. Range-
    the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution
  115. Standard Deviation-
    a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score
  116. Normal Curve (normal distribution)-
    a symmetrical, bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many types of data; most scores fall near the mean (68% fall within one standard deviation of it) and fewer and fewer near the extremes
  117. Correlation Coefficient-
    a statistical measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other. Scores with a positive correlation coefficient move up and down together (as with high school and college GPA's). A negative correlation coefficient indicates that one score falls as the other rises (as in the relationship between self-esteem and depression)
  118. Scatterplots-
    a graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables. The slope of the points suggest the direction of the relationship between the two variables. The amount of scatter suggests the strength of the correlation (little scatter indicates high correlation)
  119. Regression Towards The Mean-
    the tendency for extreme or unusual scores or events to fall back (regress) towards the average
  120. Cross-Sectional Study-
    a study in which people of different ages are compared with one another
  121. Longitudinal Study-
    research in which the same people are restudied and retested over a long period of time
  122. Statistical Significance-
    a statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance
  123. What is the first important point to remember when assessing studies that use statistical reasoning?
    Doubt big, round, undocumented numbers. Think smarter by applying simple statistical reasoning.
  124. How can we describe data with measures of central tendency and variation?
    Three measures of central tendency are the mode (the most frequently occurring score), the mean (the arithmetic average), and the median (the middle score in a group of data). Measures of variation tell us how similar or diverse data are. A range describes the gap between the highest and lowest scores. The more useful measure, the standard deviation, states how much scores vary around the mean, or average, score. The normal curve is a bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many types of data
  125. What does it mean when we say that two things are correlated?
    A correlation coefficient is a statistical measure that tells us the extent to which to things relate. In scatterplots, the amount of scatter suggests the correlation's strength, and the slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship. Correlation coefficients cannot tell cause and effect, but they do tell us how well one variable predicts the other, and they also restrain us from seeing nonexistent relationships
  126. What is regression toward the mean?
    Regression toward the mean is the tendency of extreme scores to return to normal
  127. What principles can guide our making generalizations from samples and deciding whether differences are significant?
    Three principles are worth remembering: (1) Representative samples are better than biased samples. (2) Less-variable observations are more than those that are more variable. (3) More cases are better than fewer. We can assume that a result is statistically significant- that it did not occur by chance alone- when averages from two samples are each reliable measures of their own populations, and the difference between them is relatively large.
  128. What are cross-sectional studies and longitudinal studies, and why is it important to know which method was used?
    Cross-sectional studies compare people of different ages at the same time; longitudinal studies retest the same people over time. The two methods give different perspectives. Cross-sectional studies show the effects of time and environment on many different individuals; longitudinal studies show those effects on the same people
  129. Basic Research-
    pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base
  130. Applied Research-
    scientific study that aims to solve practical problems
  131. Counseling Psychology-
    a branch of psychology that assists people with problems in living (often related to school, work, or marriage) and in achieving greater well-being
  132. Clinical Psychology-
    a branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders
  133. Psychiatry-
    a branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; practiced by physicians who sometimes provide medical (for example, drug) treatments as well as psychological therapy
  134. Memory-
    the persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information
  135. Encoding-
    the processing of information into the memory system- for example, by extracting meaning
  136. Storage-
    the retention of encoded information over time
  137. Retrieval-
    the process of getting information out of memory storage
  138. Sensory Memory-
    the immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system
  139. Short Term Memory (STM)-
    activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as the seven digits of a phone number while dialing, before the information is stored or forgotten
  140. Long-Term Memory (LTM)-
    the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system. Includes knowledge, skills, and experiences
  141. Working Memory-
    a newer understanding of short-term memory that focuses on conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information retrieved from long-term memory
  142. Automatic Processing-
    unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, and frequency, and of well-learned information, such as word meanings
  143. Effortful Processing-
    encoding that requires attention and conscious effort
  144. Rehearsal-
    the conscious repetition of information, either to maintain it in consciousness or to encode it for storage
  145. Spacing Effect-
    the tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice
  146. Serial Position Effect-
    our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list
  147. Imagery-
    mental pictures; a powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with encoding
  148. Mnemonics-
    memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices
  149. Chunking-
    organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically
  150. Iconic Memory-
    a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second
  151. Echoic Memory-
    a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3-4 seconds
  152. Long-Term Potential (LTP)-
    an increase in a synapse's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation. Believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory
  153. Flashbulb Memory-
    a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event
  154. Amnesia-
    the loss of memory
  155. Implicit Memory-
    retention independent of conscious recollection (also called non-declarative memory)
  156. Explicit Memory-
    memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and "declare" (also called declarative memory). Explicit memories are processed and for storage by the hippocampus
  157. Recall-
    a measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier, as on a fill-in-the-blank test
  158. Recognition-
    a measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned, as on a multiple-choice test
  159. Relearning-
    a measure of memory that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material for a second time
  160. Priming-
    the activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory
  161. Deja Vu-
    that eerie sense that "I've experienced this before." Cues from current situation may subconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier experience
  162. Mood-Congruent Memory-
    the tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current good or bad mood
  163. Proactive Interference-
    the disruptive effect of prior learning on the the recall of new information
  164. Retroactive Interference-
    the disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information
  165. Repression-
    in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories
  166. Misinformation Effect-
    incorporating misleading information into one's memory of an event
  167. Source Amnesia-
    attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined. (Also called source misattribution) Source amnesia, along with the misinformation effect, is at the heart of many false memories
  168. How do psychologists describe the human memory system?
    Memory is the persistence of learning over time. The Atkinson-Shiffrin classic three-stage memory model (encoding, storage, and retrieval ) suggests that we (1) register fleeting sensory memories, some of which are (2) processed into on-screen short-term memories, a tiny fraction of which are (3) encoded for long-term memory and later retrieval. Two new concepts update the classic model: (a) We register some information automatically, directly into long-term memory. And (b) the term working memory (rather than short-term memory) emphasizes the active processing that occurs in the second stage
  169. What information do we encode automatically? What information do we encode effortfully, and how does the distribution of practice influence retention?
    In automatic processing, we unconsciously absorb information about space, time, frequency, and well-learned material. Effortful processing (of meaning, imagery, organization) requires conscious attention and deliberate effort. We retain information more easily if we practice it repeatedly (the spacing effect) than if we practice it in one long cram session. The serial position effect is the tendency to recall best the first and last items in a list
  170. What effortful processing methods in forming memories?
    We process information by encoding its meaning and by encoding imagery, as when using some mnemonic devices. We also mentally organize information through chunking and hierarchies, for easier retrieval
  171. What are two components of sensory memory?
    As information enters the memory system through our senses, we briefly register and store visual images via iconic memory, in which images last no more than a few tenths of a second. We register and store sounds via echoic memory, where sound echoes may linger as long as 3 or 4 seconds
  172. What are the duration and capacity of short-term memory and of long-term memory?
    Without rehearsal, a short-term memory is limited in duration (a few seconds) and in capacity (about seven items of information, either new or retrieved from our memory store). Our capacity for storing information permanently in long-term memory is essentially unlimited
  173. How does the brain store our memories?
    Long-term potentiation appears to be the neural basis for learning and memory. Stress triggers hormonal changes that arouse brain areas and can produce indelible memories. We are particularly likely to remember emotionally significant events that form flashbulb memories. We have a dual-track memory system. Explicit (declarative) memories of general knowledge, facts and experiences are processed by the hippocampus. Implicit (non-declarative) memories of skills and conditioned responses are processed by other parts of the brain, including the cerebellum
  174. How do we get information out of memory?
    Recall is the ability to retrieve information not in conscious awareness; a fill-in-the-blank question tests recall. Recognition is the ability to identify items previously learned; a multiple-choice question tests recognition. Relearning is the ability to master previously stored information more quickly than you originally learned it. Retrieval cues catch our attention and tweak our web of associations, helping to more target information into conscious awareness. Priming is the process of activating associations (often unconsciously)
  175. How do external contexts and internal emotions influence memory retrieval?
    The context in which we originally experienced an event or encoded a thought can flood our memory with retrieval cues. Cues triggered by a different but similar context can trick us into believing we have had the experience before, a feeling known as deja-vu. Specific emotions can prime us to retrieve memories consistent with that state, a phenomenon known as mood-congruent memory
  176. Why do we forget?
    We may fail to encode information for entry into our memory system. Memories may fade after storage- rapidly at first, and then leveling off, a trend known as the forgetting curve. We may experience retrieval failures, when old and new material compete, when we don't have adequate retrieval cues, or possibly, in rare instances, because of motivated forgetting, or repression. In proactive interference, something learned in the past interferes with our ability to recall something recently learned. In retroactive interference, something recently learned interferes with something learned in the past
  177. How do misinformation, imagination, and source amnesia influence our memory construction?
    If we are exposed to misinformation after an event, or if we repeatedly imagine and rehearse an event that never occurred, we may construct a false memory of what actually happened. We experience source amnesia when we attribute a memory to the wrong source
  178. What is the controversy related to claims of repressed and recovered memories?
    Memory researchers and some well-meaning therapists have debated whether people repress memories of early childhood abuse and can recover them by means of leading questions and/or hypnosis during therapy. Psychologists now tend to agree that: (1) Sexual abuse happens, and can leave lasting scars. (2) Some innocent people have been falsely convicted of abuse that never happened, and some true abuses have used the controversy over recovered memories to avoid punishment. (3) Forgetting isolated past events, good or bad, is an ordinary part of life. (4) Recovering good and bad memories, triggered by some memory cue, is commonplace. (5) Infantile amnesia- the inability to recall memories from the first three years of life- makes recovery of very early childhood memories unlikely. (6) Memories obtained under the influence of hypnosis or drugs or therapy are unreliable. (7) Both real and false memories cause stress and suffering
  179. How can an understanding of memory contribute to more effective study techniques?
    Memory research-based strategies include studying repeatedly, making material personally meaningful, activating retrieval cues, using mnemonic devices, minimizing interference, getting adequate sleep, and self-testing