Physiology endocrine part 2
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posterior pituitary hormones
- oxytocin is stimulated by the paraventricular or supraoptic neurons when the breast or the uterus wall is contracting and it is positive feedback!!
- ADH stimulates the paraventricular and supraoptic neurons when the osmotic polarity in the plasma is increased.
Anterior pituitary hormones
- GH dont know what stimulates it but if theres to much giantism and/or acromegaly. to little and you have a dwarf.
- gonadal hormones but know for the next test I believe
- T3 and T4 (t3 is more functional has one less phosphate molecule) needs iodine to be created transported via TBG and bind to intracellular receptors since it increases metabolic rate of cells. TSH is released from pituitary to start the thyroid hormone and its negative feedback on both of them.
- Calcitronin hormone- made from the C Cells in the thyroid when the calcium levels are to high in the blood levels. decreases calcitrol increases osteoblasts and calitonin (so kidneys can release more calcium in the urine)
cheif cells when the calcium levels are to low. increases calcitrial (intestines)and calcitronin(kidney) and increases osteoclasts activity.
- epinephrine and norepinephrine are stimulated by the sympathetic nervous system (fight or flight)
- the cortex releases 3 hormones
- 1) glucocorticoids-cortisal- increase glucose production I know all about it CRH is first released then adrenal makes it and releases has normal negative feedback. cortisal is lowest at 4 and highest at 9.
- 2) mineralcorticoids- aldosterone- keep Na+ release K+
- 3) androgen
atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) inhibits aldosterone and ADH decreases thirst since the atriums are getting to stretched out from the increased volume of the blood plasma (to much water)
- Alpha (glucagon) and beta (insulin)
- ADIPOSE RELEASES LEPTIN (SATISFIED) AND THE STOMACH RELEASED GHREMLIN (HUNGER)
cortisol hormones comes from what group and where?
1) glucocorticoids-cortisal- increase glucose production it CRH is first released then adrenal makes it and releases has normal negative feedback. cortisal is lowest at 4am and highest at 9am.
Aldosterone hormone comes from what group where and what it does?
2) mineralcorticoids, comes from the cortex of the adrenal gland, keep Na+ release K+
Androgen is what group and where it comes from
Androgen is just androgen and it comes from the cortex of the adrenal gland
What do you know about ADH?
- It begins with the plasma osmolarity is increased
- It originates from the posterior pituitary
- It's target tissue is the kidney
- The function is so that you don't lose all your water ( a condition called diabetes ...?)
What do you know about growth hormone?
originates from the anterior pituitary gland, the target tissue is organs and tissue, and it grows the target tissue.
What do you know about T3 and T4?
It comes from the thyroid when thats stimulated (we know that diagram right!!) We need iodine to produce it. The T3 (the active form of thyroid hormone) goes to the intercellular receptors and alters metabolic rates in the cells.
What do we know about calcitonin?
Thyroid C Cells produce it when Ca+ levels become to high, it stops when the Ca+ blood levels become homeostasis. Because of the hormone the kidneys lose more Ca+, intestines with help form calcitrol loses more Ca+ and also with help from calcitrol bones increase osteoblasts.
What do we know about the parathyroid hormone?
Its triggered when the parathyroid detects to much Ca+. Because of the hormone the kidneys retain more Ca+, intestines with help form calcitrol absorbs more Ca+ and also with help from calcitrol bones increase osteoclasts
What do we know about epinephrine and norepinephrine?
from neural stimulation from the sympathetic nervous system stimulates the medulla region of the medulla.
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