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sticks to other water molecules
Sticks to other types of molecules
Why is the ocean blue?
absorbs red light, reflects blue light.
Main properties of water:
- Unusual thermal properties
- Unusual density
- high solubility of chemical compounds in water
Unusual thermal properties of water:
- High freezing point
- high boiling point
- high heat capacity
- high latent heat
High heat capacity of water:
- *capacity for a compound to absorb and hold heat
- highest heat capacity on earth
- ammonia higher... but...
High latent heat of water:
*probably why we have thunderstorms in florida
Global thermostatic effects:
- moderates temp. of Earth's surface.
- ex. Equatorial oceans(hot) don't boil.
- ex. Polar oceans(cold) don't freeze solid.
Oceans moderate temp. changes day/night;
Density of ice is less than density of water (T/F)
Density of water decreases as temp. decreases in which threshold?
From 4C to 0C.
Density of water increases as temp. decreases down to 4C (T/F)?
Dissolved solids reduce the freezing pt of water (T/F)?
- total amount of INORGANIC solid material dissolved
- in water (g/kg)
- 3.5% or 35o/oo
- o/oo or parts per thousand (ppt) = grams of salt per kilogram of water
- (g/Kg )
< 33 ppt
What is the most abundant chemical in seawater (besides water)?
Adding salts does not change many properties of water (T/F).
How is salinity measured?
- Chemical analysis - Titration
- Specific Gravity (w/ hydrometer) (1.028 g/ml)
- Electrical conductivity (Salinometer, CTD)
Coastal areas salinity varies more
- widely in what ways?
- Influx of freshwater lowers salinity or creates brackish conditions
- Greater rate of evaporation raises salinity or creates hypersaline conditions
- Salinity may vary with seasons (dry/rain).
Processes that decrease salinity:
- Precipitation (rain or snow)
- Runoff (river flow)
- Melting Icebergs
- Melting sea ice
Processes that increase salinity:
- Formation of sea ice
How are dissolved substances added to oceans?
- River input (primarily)
- Thermal vents
- Volcanic eruptions
How are dissolved substances removed from oceans?
- Salt spray (minor)
- Subduction at trenches (Geologic processes)
- Biogenic sediments (Biological processes)
- Evaporites (Chemical processes)
Is the ocean becoming progressively saltier with age?
- The proportion and amounts
- of dissolved solids remain constant. This concept is known as the
- “steady state ocean.“
- Ions are being added to and removed from the ocean at the same rate.
What does the hydrologic cycle describe?
recycling of water near Earth's surface.
Processes that add dissolved substances (salinity increases)
- River flow
- volcanic eruptions
- biologic interactions
processes that subtract dissolved substances (salinity decreases)
- Chemical at seawater-sea floor interface
- Biologic interactions
- Evaporite formation
Average length of time a substance remains dissolved in seawater.
pH of seawater DOES NOT vary slightly with depth
What is the function of Carbonate Buffering?
Keeps ocean pH about the same.
Carbonate Buffering: describe the process
- H2O + CO2 > H2CO3 > H+ + HCO3
- ‐ > 2H+ + CO3
- Precipitation/dissolution of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) buffers ocean pH (CaCO3 > Ca+ + CO3
- Oceans can absorb CO2 from atmosphere without much
- change in pH
Surface ocean varies primarily with latitude (T/F)?
Polar regions have slightly lower salinity, why is this?
Lots of rain/snow and runoff
Mid-latitudes have higher salinity, why is this?
Evaporation and dry weather
Equator has slightly lower salinity, why is this?
Lots of rain
The surface ocean salinity is NOT variable (T/F)?
Deeper ocean salinity is the same (T/F)?
rapid change of salinity with depth
What is the density of seawater?
1.022 to 1.030 g/cm3 surface seawater
How is the ocean layered?
according to density
How is the density of seawater controlled?
Of Temperature, Salinity, and Pressure, what has the greatest amount of influence on seawater's density?
- Density increases with decreases temperature.
In what region does salinity have the greatest influence on the density of seawater?
Polar oceans where polar ocean is isothermal (same temperature).
Density differences cause a layered ocean (T/F)?
abrupt change of density with depth
abrupt change of temperature with depth
Properties of a layered ocean
- Mixed surface water
- Deep water
- High latitude oceans (Isothermal + isopycnal)
Name a few Desalination processes
- Reverse osmosis
A process of scattering and absorbing weakened light
What does Z I K stand for?
occurs when light is bounced between air and water molecules, dust and other objects.
occurs when light's electromagnetic energy is converted to heat in the molecules of seawater.
Colors are absorb at different rates:
Characteristics of sound in the ocean:
- 25x faster than on land
- directionless to humans