Ch. 3 Dixon

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Ch. 3 Dixon
2011-03-14 17:39:23
Dixon OP

Ch.3 Dixon OP
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  1. foreign substances against which the immune system defends the body
    mainly proteins
  2. occurs as a result of part of an individuals own body becomes antigens
    autoimmune disease
  3. Cells involved in the immune response:
    • B lymphocytes (B cells) – Eosinophils
    • T lymphocytes (T cells) – Mast Cells
    • Macrophages – Natural Killer (NK) Cells
  4. Eosinophils
    B lymphocytes (B cells)
  5. Mast Cells
    T lymphocytes (T cells)
  6. Natural Killer (NK) Cells
  7. the 1° WBC’s involved in immune response
    they recognize/respond to antigens
    NK cell – viral infections
  8. from stem cells in bone marrow
    they mature in lymphatic tissue (lymph nodes)
    B lymphoctyes
  9. what are the 2 types of B lymphocytes?
    • plasma cell
    • T-lymphocytes-tymus
  10. produces specific antibody needed to fight the antigen
    plams cell
  11. antibody also called
  12. what are the specific immunoglobulins?
    • IgG, IgA, IgM, Ige, IgD
    • (GAMED)
  13. antibody combines with?
    immune complex
  14. renders the antigen inactive
    antigen-antibody complex
  15. lab test to determine the level of a specific antibody in the blood
    antibody titer
  16. 2nd type of B lymphocyteRetains the memory of previously
    B memory cell
  17. increase the functioning of B -lymphocytes and enhances the antibody response
    T-helper cells
  18. suppress the functioning of the B lymphocytes and T-Killer cells that are active in surveillance against virally infected cells or tumor cells
    T-suppressor cells
  19. lymphocytes produce?
  20. lymphocytes produce lymphokines which:
    • -change monocytes to macrophages
    • -inhibit migration of macrophages so they stay in needed area
    • - activate macrophages
    • - enhance ability of macrophages to destroy foreign cells (phagocytosis)
  21. What are the 3 lymphokines?
    • interleukins
    • lymphotoxins
    • interferon
  22. stimulates WBC’s population growth
  23. distruction of fibroblast
  24. antiviral activites
  25. phagocytosis
    -link between the inflammatory and immune responses
    -can act as antigen – presenting cells
  26. can occur naturally or can be acquired
    -via vaccination
    -sometimes requires a booster (example tetanis)
    Active immunity
  27. -using antibodies produced by another person to protect an
    individual from infectious disease
    -antibody from another passes through the placenta to a developing fetus
    -bone marrow transplant
    Passive immunity
  28. study of immune reactions involved in disease
  29. allergic reactions with exaggerated responses and tissue destruction
  30. -occurs immediately after exposure to a previously encountered antigen. (Penicillin)
    -IgE causes mast cells to release Histamine
    -can be life threatening because patient may not be able to breath
    -examples: hayfever, Asthma
    • Anaphylaxis
    • type 1 hypersinsitivity
  31. -antibody combines with an antigen bound to the surface of tissue cells
    -incompatible blood transfusions
    -Rhesus incompatibiltiy (Rh)
    -Ex: autoimmune hemolytic anemia
    • Cytotoxic
    • Type 2 hypersensitivity
  32. mother’s antibodies cross the placenta and destroy the newborn’s RBC’s
    Rhesus incompatibility (Rh)
  33. -immune complexes are formed between microorganisms and antibody in circulating blood
    -causes phagocytosis/death of the neutrophils with the release of lysosomal enzymes causing tissue destruction
    -example: systemic lupus erythematosus
    • immune complx
    • Type 3 hypersensitivity
  34. -“delayed hypersensitivity” – cell-mediated response
    - tuberculin test (PPD) [Mantoux]
    -skin reaction occurs if the individual tested has previously been exposed to the organism causing TB
    -responsible for the rejection of tissue grafts/transplanted organs
    • cell-mediated
    • Type 4 hypersensitivity
  35. -type of immunopathologic condition that involves a deficiency in
    number, function, or interrelationships of the involved WBC’s and their products
  36. canker sores or aphthous stomatitis
    3 types of aphthous – minor, major, and herpetiform
    most common type of ulcer – 20% of population
    trauma is most common precipitating factor
    Aphthous Ulcers
  37. systemic diseases associated with aphthous ulcers:
    • 1. Behcet’s syndrome
    • 2. Crohn’s disease
    • 3. Ulcerative colitis
    • 4. Cyclic neutropenia
    • 5. Sprue (gluten intolerance)
    • 6. Intestinal lymphoma
  38. -Most common type
    -surfaced by a yellowish-white fibrin covering surrounded by a halo of erythema
    -ulcers occur on movable mucosa, tongue, and soft palate
    -more common in anterior part of the mouth
    -begins with a prodromal period of 1-2 days – burning, itching, soreness
    -single or multiple lesions
    -heal spontaneously in 7-10 days
    -treat symptomatically – Tylenol, anesthetics (topical), some topical steroids (lidex) [pallative]
    Minor Aphthous Ulcers
  39. -larger than 1cm in diameter and are deeper and last longer than minor
    -occur in posterior part of the mouth
    -may require biopsy for dx
    -several weeks to heal with scarring
    -some require systemic steroids
    Major Aphthous