An inflammation of the musous membranes of the bronchial tree caused by viruses or bacteria.
Cough is initially nonproductive but may become productive after a few days.
Substernal chest pain aggrivated by coughing.
Fever, malaise, tachypnea
An infection of the terminal bronchioles and alveoli.
May be caused by bacteria, fungi, viruses, myoplasms, or aspiration of gastric secretions.
Viral tends to produce a nonproductive cough or clear sputum.
Bacterial tends to produce a productive cough with white, yellow, or green sputum.
Fever, malaise, pleuritic chest pain
A contagious bacterial infection.
Primarily infects the lungs but can also infect the kidneys, bone, lymph node, and meninges.
Initial clinical manifestations may include fatigue, anorexia, weight loss, night sweats, and fever.
Later, a cough that becomes increasingly frequent, producing a mucopurulent sputum
An accumulation of fluid in the pleural spaces between the visceral and parietal pleurae.
Depends on the fluid accumulation and position of patient.
Large amount of fluid could cause dyspnea, intercostal bulging, or decreased chest wall movement.
Characterized by bronchoconstriction, airway obstruction, or inflammation in response to inhalation of allergens or pollutants, infection, cold air, or emotional stress.
Increased respiratory rate with prolonged expiration.
Audible wheezing, dyspne, tachycardia, use of accessory muscles, and cough
Destruction of the alveolar walls that causes permanent abnormal enlargement of the air spaces
Underweight individual with a barrel chest that becomes short of breath with minimal exertion.
Hypersecretion of mucus by goblet cells in the trachea and bronchi resulting in a productive cough for 3 months in each of 2 successive years.
Increased mucus production
Collapsed alveoli caused by external pressure from a tumor, fluid, or air in the pleural spaces.
The affected lobe has diminished breath sounds
O2 sat less than 90%
Uncontrolled growth of anaplastic cells in the lung