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what are the 2 factors that, when altered, can cause increase/decrease in BP?
- cardiac output (HR, contractility, blood volume, venous return)
- peripheral resistance (arteriolar constriction)
significance of sympathetic baroreceptor reflex? where are the two receptors located?
- a system that regulates BP via the sympathetic NS by activating heart & vessel receptors
- two baroreceptors are located in the carotid sinus & aortic arch
describe the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system.
- 1. increased BP triggers kidneys to release renin
- 2. renin turns angiotensinogen to angiotensin I
- 3. ACE (angiotensin converting enzyme) catalyzes angiotensin I to angiotensin II
- 4. angiotensin II constricts blood vessels, causing increased BP
- 5. angiotensin II also triggers release of aldosterone
how do the kidneys play a role in BP?
- 1. BP falls, and the kidney reabsorbs sodium, water, and potassium
- 2. reabsorption causes increased blood volume
- 3. increased blood volume causes increased venous return
- 4. increased venous return causes increased CO
- 4. increased CO causes rise in BP
the kidney's effect on BP is neutralized by using ____ (what medication?)
main action of sympatholytics? (antiadrenergics)
affect the sympathetic nervous system (heart or blood vessels) to decrease BP