Heart & Peripheral Vascular System
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This can be characterized by a heart valve that either does not open or close completely
- Valvular Heart disease
- Rheumatic fever & endocarditis account for most cases
Chest pain that is due to ischemia of the myocardium is called _____
- Angina Pectoris
- Usually caused by atherosclereosis w/in the coronary arteriessqueezing, soffocating or constricting pain. significant hypertension or hypotenson may occur
This occurs when myocardial ischemia is sustained resulting in death of myocardial cells (necrosis)
- Myocardial infarction
- The LV is more commonly affected, but RV can also be affected
- Worst chest pain ever lasting longer than 5 minutes, may radiate to L shoulder, jaw, arm. Not relieved by rest or nitroglycerin.
When either ventricle fails to pump blood efficiently into the aorta or pulmonary arteries, the condition is termed:
Heart Failure (RV, LV or both)
Women report myocardial infarction as pain or discomfort in center of chest, shortness of breath, cold sweat, nausea, vomiting or lightheadedness
This cardiac condition is caused by
1. increased resistance that occurs w/aortic stenosis or hypertension when the ventricle can no longer compensate effectively for the increased workload
2. weakening of the LV contraction that occurs after a myocardial infarction when death of myocardial cells causes an ineffective
- LV failure
- fatigue & shortness of breath including orthopnea, dyspnea on exertion & proxysmal nocturnal dyspnea
This cardiac condition is caused by hypertrophy from pulmonary hypertension form necrosis from a myocardial infarction.
- RV failure
- precordial movement at the xiphoid or LSB, elevated jugular venous pressure, dependent peripheral edema, S3 at LLSB systolic murmur & weight gain
An infection of the endothelial layer of the heart, including the cardiac valves is called ______________
Inflammation of the parietal & visceral layers of the pericardium & outer myocardium is termed:
- findings are pericardial friction rub and chest pain
A localized dialation of an artery caused by weakness in the arterial wall is referred to as an _________
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